The NTP uses ad hoc scientific experts, referred to as special emphasis panels (SEPs), as needed, to provide independent scientific peer review and advice on targeted issues. Such issues include the strength of the scientific evidence of the potential for harm from specific environmental or occupational exposures, the identification of toxicology knowledge gaps and data needs, and the evaluation of new/revised alternative toxicological methods of multi-agency interest that might improve or reduce, refine or replace the use of animals. These panels help ensure transparent, unbiased, and scientifically rigorous input to the program for its use in making credible decisions about human health hazards, setting research and testing priorities, and evaluating test methods for toxicity screening. The Report on Carcinogens, Office of Health Assessment and Translation and the NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods use SEPs to conduct evaluations. Special emphasis meetings are typically announced and open to the public.