National Toxicology Program

National Toxicology Program
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Abstract for TR-432 - Barium Chloride Dihydrate (CASRN 10326-27-9)

Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Barium Chloride Dihydrate (CAS No. 10326-27-9) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Drinking Water Studies)

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Chemical Formula: BaCl2 ·  2H2O

Barium chloride dihydrate, a white crystalline granule or powder, is used in pigments, aluminum refining, leather tanning and coloring, the manufacture of magnesium metal, ceramics, glass, and paper products, as a pesticide, and in medicine as a cardiac stimulant. Toxicology and carcinogenicity studies were conducted by administering barium chloride dihydrate (99% pure) in drinking water to F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice for 15 days, 13 weeks, and 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium, cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells, and mouse lymphoma cells.

15-DAY STUDY IN RATS

Groups of five males and five females received barium chloride dihydrate in the drinking water at concentrations of 0, 125, 250, 500, 1,000, or 2,000 ppm for 15 days, corresponding to average daily doses of 10, 15, 35, 60, or 110 mg barium/kg body weight to males and females. No chemical-related deaths, differences in final mean body weights, or clinical findings of toxicity were observed. Water consumption by male and female rats exposed to 2,000 ppm was slightly less (S16%) than controls during week 2. There were no significant differences in absolute or relative organ weights between exposed and control rats. No biologically significant differences in hematology, clinical chemistry, or neurobehavioral parameters occurred in rats.

15-DAY STUDY IN MICE

Groups of five males and five females received barium chloride dihydrate in the drinking water at concentrations of 0, 40, 80,173, 346, or 692 ppm for 15 days, corresponding to average daily doses of 5,10, 20, 40, or 70 mg barium/kg body weight to males and 5, 10, 15, 40, or 85 mg barium/kg body weight to females. No chemical-related deaths, differences in mean body weights or in water consumption, or clinical findings of toxicity were observed in mice. The relative liver weight of males receiving 692 ppm was significantly greater than that of the controls. The absolute and relative liver weights of females that received 692 ppm were significantly greater than those of the controls. No histopathologic evidence of toxicity was observed in mice.

13-WEEK STUDY IN RATS

Groups of 10 males and 10 females received barium chloride dihydrate in the drinking water at concentrations of 0, 125, 500, 1,000, 2,000, or 4,000 ppm for 13 weeks, corresponding to average daily doses of 10, 30, 65, 110, or 200 mg barium/kg body weight to males and 10, 35, 65, 115, or 180 mg barium/kg body weight to females. Three males and one female in the 4,000 ppm groups died during the last week of the study. The final mean body weights of male and female rats receiving 4,000 ppm were significantly lower (13% and 8%) than those of the controls. Water consumption by male and female rats in the 4,000 ppm groups was approximately 30% lower than that by the controls. No clearly chemical-related clinical findings of toxicity or neurobehavioral or cardiovascular effects were noted. Serum phosphorus levels in 2,000 and 4,000 ppm male and female rats were significantly higher than those in controls, but there were no biologically significant differences in hematology parameters or in serum sodium, potassium, or calcium levels. Renal tubule dilatation in the outer stripe of the outer medulla and cortex occurred in male and female rats receiving 4,000 ppm.

13-WEEK STUDY IN MICE

Groups of 10 males and 10 females received barium chloride dihydrate in the drinking water at concentrations of 0, 125, 500, 1,000, 2,000, or 4,000 ppm for 13 weeks, corresponding to average daily doses of 15, 55, 100, 205, or 450 mg barium/kg body weight to males and 15, 60, 110, 200, or 495 mg barium/kg body weight to females. Six males and seven females that received 4,000 ppm and one male that received 125 ppm died during the study. Final mean body weights of male and female mice receiving 4,000 ppm were significantly lower (>30%) than those of controls. Water consumption by male mice in the 4,000 ppm group was 18% lower than that by the controls; water consumption by other exposed groups of male and female mice was similar to that by the controls. Clinical findings of toxicity were limited to debilitation in the surviving male and female mice receiving 4,000 ppm. The absolute and/or relative liver weights of mice receiving 1,000, 2,000, and 4,000 ppm were significantly lower than those of the controls. Multifocal to diffuse nephropathy characterized by tubule dilatation, regeneration, and atrophy occurred in 4,000 ppm male and female mice.

2-YEAR STUDY IN RATS:

Groups of 60 males and 60 females received barium chloride dihydrate in the drinking water at concentrations of 0, 500, 1,250, or 2,500 ppm for 104 (males) or 105 weeks (females), corresponding to average daily doses of 15, 30, or 60 mg barium/kg body weight for males and 15, 45, or 75 mg barium/kg body weight for females. The high dose of 2,500 ppm was selected based on decreased final mean body weights, mortality, decreased water consumption, and chemical-related kidney lesions observed in the 4,000 ppm groups in the 13-week study.

Survival, Body Weights, Water Consumption, and Clinical Findings
Two-year survival of exposed male and female rats was similar to that of the controls. The final mean body weights of male and female rats that received 2,500 ppm were (5% and 11%) lower than those of controls. Beginning as early as week 5, water consumption by male and female rats receiving 2,500 ppm was substantially lower than that by controls (male: 11% to 30%; female: 19% to 33%). There were no chemical-related clinical findings.

Hematology and Clinical Chemistry
There were no chemical-related differences in hematology or clinical chemistry parameters in male or female rats.

Special Studies
At the 15-month interim evaluation, the plasma barium concentrations (mg/ml) were significantly increased in males receiving 1,250 and 2,500 ppm and in all exposed groups of females (male: 0 ppm, 0.98; 500 ppm, 1.00; 1,250 ppm, 1.23; 2,500 ppm, 1.68; female: 0 ppm, 0.74; 500 ppm, 0.99; 1,250 ppm, 0.97; 2,500 ppm, 1.43). Barium levels in bone in rats from the 2,500 ppm groups were about 400 times greater than those in the controls.

Pathology Findings
At the end of 2 years, there were no increased incidences of neoplasms or nonneoplastic lesions that could be attributed to barium chloride dihydrate. However, there were dose-related decreased incidences of adrenal medulla pheochromocytomas and mononuclear cell leukemia in male rats.

2-YEAR STUDY IN MICE

Groups of 60 males and 60 females received barium chloride dihydrate in the drinking water at concentrations of 0, 500, 1,250, or 2,500 ppm for 103 (males) or 104 weeks (females), corresponding to average daily doses of 30, 75, or 160 mg barium/kg body weight for males and 40, 90, or 200 mg barium/kg body weight for females. The high dose of 2,500 ppm was selected based on decreased final mean body weights, mortality, decreased water consumption, and chemical-related kidney lesions observed in the 4,000 ppm groups in the 13-week study.

Survival, Body Weights, Water Consumption, and Clinical Findings
Two-year survival of male and female mice receiving 2,500 ppm was significantly lower than that of the controls due to renal toxicity. Final mean body weights of 2,500 ppm males and females were 9% and 12% lower than those of controls. Water consumption by male and female mice receiving barium chloride was similar to that by the controls. There were no chemical-related clinical findings.

Hematology and Clinical Chemistry
There were no differences in hematology or clinical chemistry parameters measured at the 15-month interim evaluation.

Special Studies
At the 15-month interim evaluation, plasma barium concentrations (mg/mL) were significantly increased in all exposed groups of mice (male: 0 ppm, 0.62; 500 ppm, 0.77; 1,250 ppm, 0.89; 2,500 ppm, 1.49; female: 0 ppm, 0.52; 500 ppm, 0.74; 1,250 ppm, 1.01; 2,500 ppm, 1.35).

Pathology Findings
At the end of the 2-year study, there were increased incidences of nephropathy in male and female mice (male: 1/50, 0/50, 2/48, 19/50; female: 0/50, 2/53, 1/50, 37/54).

There were no chemical-related increased incidences of neoplasms in male or female mice. The incidence of hepatocellular adenoma was significantly decreased in male mice receiving 2,500 ppm.

GENETIC TOXICOLOGY

Barium chloride dihydrate was not mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97, TA98, TA100, TA1535, or TA1537, with or without exogenous metabolic activation (S9). It was mutagenic in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells in the presence of S9, but it did not induce sister chromatid exchanges or chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells, with or without S9.

CONCLUSIONS

Under the conditions of these 2-year drinking water studies, there was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of barium chloride dihydrate in male or female F344/N rats that received 500, 1,250, or 2,500 ppm. There was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of barium chloride dihydrate in male or female B6C3F1 mice that received 500, 1,250, or 2,500 ppm.

There were chemical-related increased incidences of nephropathy in male and female mice.


(NOTE: These studies were supported in part by funds from the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act trust fund (Superfund) by an interagency agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Public Health Service.)

Report Date: January 1994

Pathology Tables, Survival and Growth Curves from NTP 2-year Studies

Target Organs & Incidences from 2-year Studies


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