National Toxicology Program

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Abstract for TR-484 - Studies 2-Butoxyethanol (CASRN 111-76-2)

Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies 2-Butoxyethanol (CAS NO. 111-76-2) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Inhalation Studies)

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Chemical Formula: C6H14O2

2-Butoxyethanol is a member of a family of ethylene glycol monoalkyl ethers. It is used extensively as a solvent in surface coatings such as lacquers, enamels, varnishes, and latex paint; in paint thinners, paint stripping formulations, and inks; and in degreasers and industrial and household cleaners. 2-Butoxyethanol was nominated for study because of its widespread use in industrial and consumer applications, the potential for exposure to workers and the general population, and the absence of chronic toxicity data. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to 2-butoxyethanol (greater than 99% pure) by inhalation (primary route of human exposure) for 14 weeks or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium, cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells, and the bone marrow of male F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice.

14-WEEK STUDY IN RATS

Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were exposed to 2-butoxyethanol by inhalation at concentrations of 0, 31, 62.5, 125, 250, or 500 ppm, 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 14 weeks. One female rat in the 250 ppm group was killed moribund during week 8; four females in the 500 ppm group were killed moribund during week 1 and one during week 5. Final mean body weights of females exposed to 500 ppm were significantly less than those of the chamber controls. Clinical findings included abnormal breathing, pallor, red urine stains, nasal and eye discharge, lethargy, and increased salivation and/or lacrimation. Due to vascular thrombosis and infarction in the tail vertebrae of 500 ppm female rats, the tails became necrotic and either sloughed off or were chewed off. The primary effect on the hematopoietic system was an anemia characterized as macrocytic, normochromic, and regenerative in males exposed to 125 ppm or greater and, to a greater extent, in all exposed groups of females. Compared to the chamber controls, kidney weights of males exposed to 500 ppm and females exposed to 125 ppm or greater and liver weights of males exposed to 250 or 500 ppm and females exposed to 125 ppm or greater were significantly increased, and thymus weights of females exposed to 500 ppm were significantly less. In female rats killed moribund, there was considerable histologic evidence of thrombosis in tissues and organs including the nasal cavity, incisors, liver, lung, and heart. In addition to thrombosis, infarction occurred in the vertebrae of the tail resulting in necrosis and loss of the distal portion of the tail. There were also inflammation, necrosis, and ulceration of the forestomach; necrosis and centrilobular degeneration of the liver; renal tubule degeneration; and atrophy of the spleen and thymus. Exposure-related increases in the incidences of Kupffer cell pigmentation, forestomach inflammation and epithelial hyperplasia, bone marrow hyperplasia, splenic hematopoietic cell proliferation, and renal tubule pigmentation were observed in male and/or female rats surviving to the end of the study.

14-WEEK STUDY IN MICE

Groups of 10 male and 10 female mice were exposed to 2-butoxyethanol by inhalation at concentrations of 0, 31, 62.5, 125, 250, or 500 ppm, 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 14 weeks. Two male and two female mice exposed to 500 ppm died and two males and two females were killed moribund during the first 2 weeks of the study. Final mean body weights of 125, 250, and 500 ppm male mice were significantly less than those of the chamber controls. Clinical findings were observed only in 500 ppm males and females that died or were killed moribund and included abnormal breathing, red urine stains, and lethargy. Hematologic evaluation indicated an anemia that was characterized as normocytic, normochromic, and regenerative in mice exposed to 62.5 ppm or greater; the anemia was more pronounced in females. Liver weights of males exposed to 500 ppm were significantly greater than the chamber controls. In mice either dying early or killed moribund, there were inflammation, necrosis, and ulceration of the forestomach; mediastinal pleura and peritoneal inflammation associated with the forestomach lesions; liver necrosis; renal tubule degeneration; atrophy of the spleen, thymus, and mandibular and mesenteric lymph nodes; and degeneration of the testis. Exposure-related increases in the incidences of hematopoietic cell proliferation and hemosiderin pigmentation of the spleen, Kupffer cell hemosiderin pigmentation of the liver, inflammation and epithelial hyperplasia of the forestomach, and renal tubule hemosiderin pigmentation occurred in male and/or female mice surviving to the end of the study.

2-YEAR STUDY IN RATS

Groups of 50 male and 50 female rats were exposed to 2-butoxyethanol by inhalation at concentrations of 0, 31.2, 62.5, or 125 ppm, 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 104 weeks. For hematology and bone marrow analyses, additional groups of 27 male and 27 female rats were exposed to 0, 62.5, or 125 ppm for evaluation at 3, 6, and 12 months and nine male and nine female rats were exposed to 31.2 ppm for evaluation at 3 (hematology only) and 6 months.

Survival and Body Weights
Survival of exposed male and female rats was similar to the chamber control groups. The mean body weights of females exposed to 125 ppm were generally less than the chamber control group.

Hematology and Bone Marrow Cellularity
The most consistent exposure-related effect on the hematopoietic system was an exposure concentration-related mild macrocytic, normochromic, regenerative anemia present at 3, 6, and 12 months, with females more affected than males. Significant increases in bone marrow cellularity and decreases in the myeloid/erythroid ratio relative to the chamber controls were observed at all time points in females exposed to 125 ppm, and a decrease in the myeloid/erythroid ratio was observed in males exposed to 125 ppm at 12 months.

Pathology Findings
The incidence of benign or malignant pheochromocytoma (combined) of the adrenal medulla in females exposed to 125 ppm was not significantly increased compared to the chamber controls but exceeded the historical control range. Exposure-related increases in the incidences of hyaline degeneration of the olfactory epithelium and Kupffer cell pigmentation of the liver were observed in male and female rats.

2-YEAR STUDY IN MICE

Groups of 50 male and 50 female mice were exposed to 2-butoxyethanol by inhalation at concentrations of 0, 62.5, 125, or 250 ppm, 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 104 weeks. For hematology and bone marrow analyses, additional groups of 30 male and 30 female mice were exposed to 0, 62.5, 125, or 250 ppm for evaluation at 3, 6, and 12 months.

Survival and Body Weights
Survival of male mice exposed to 125 or 250 ppm was significantly less than that of the chamber control group. The mean body weights of exposed males were generally less than those of the chamber control group during the last 6 months of the study. The mean body weights of exposed female mice were less than those of the chamber control group; the reductions were greater and occurred earlier than those observed in males.

Hematology
The most consistent exposure-related effect on the hematopoietic system was an exposure concentration-related minimal normocytic, normochromic, regenerative anemia present at 3, 6, and 12 months, with females affected slightly more than males.

Pathology Findings
In females exposed to 250 ppm, incidences of forestomach squamous cell papilloma and squamous cell papilloma or carcinoma (combined) were significantly increased relative to the chamber controls, and these incidences exceeded the ranges in historical chamber controls. In 2-butoxyethanol exposed males, there were possible exposure-related increases in the incidences of squamous cell papilloma of the forestomach, although the increases were not significant and the incidences were within the historical control range for chamber controls. Accompanying these neoplasms in females and, to a lesser extent, in males were exposure-related increases in the incidences of ulcer and epithelial hyperplasia of the forestomach.

In male mice exposed to 250 ppm, the incidence of hemangiosarcoma of the liver was significantly increased relative to chamber controls and exceeded the range in historical controls; in addition, there were possible exposure-related increases in the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. Incidences of hemosiderin pigmentation in the Kupffer cells were significantly increased in 125 and 250 ppm males and all exposed groups of females.

The incidences of splenic hematopoietic cell proliferation and hemosiderin pigmentation were generally increased in males and females, and the incidences of bone marrow hyperplasia were increased in males. The incidences of hyaline degeneration of the olfactory and respiratory epithelia of the nose were increased in female mice.

GENETIC TOXICOLOGY

2-Butoxyethanol did not induce mutations in any of the S. typhimurium strains tested, with or without induced hamster or rat liver S9. 2-Butoxyethanol induced cycle delay but did not induce either sister chromatid exchanges or chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells with or without S9. 2-Butoxyethanol did not induce micronuclei in bone marrow cells of male rats or mice administered the chemical by intraperitoneal injection three times at 24-hour intervals.

CONCLUSIONS

Under the conditions of these 2-year inhalation studies, there was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of 2-butoxyethanol in male F344/N rats exposed to 31.2, 62.5, or 125 ppm. There was equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity of 2-butoxyethanol in female F344/N rats based on the increased combined incidences of benign or malignant pheochromocytoma (mainly benign) of the adrenal medulla. There was some evidence of carcinogenic activity of 2-butoxyethanol in male B6C3F1 mice based on increased incidences of hemangiosarcoma of the liver. A marginal increase in the incidences of forestomach squamous cell papilloma and an increase in the incidences of hepatocellular carcinoma may have been exposure related. There was some evidence of carcinogenic activity of 2-butoxyethanol in female B6C3F1 mice based on increased incidences of fore stomach squamous cell papilloma or carcinoma (mainly papilloma).

Increased incidences of forestomach neoplasms in male and female mice occurred in groups in which ulceration and hyperplasia were also present.

Exposure to 2-butoxyethanol caused a mild regenerative anemia and effects secondary to the anemia.


Synonyms: 2-Butoxy-1-ethanol; m-butyl ether; butyl glycol; ethylene glycol monobutyl ether

Trade name: Butyl Cellosolve


Summary of the 2-Year Carcinogenesis and Genetic Toxicology Studies of 2-Butoxyethanol

 

 

Male
F344/N Rats
Female
F344/N Rats
Male
B6C3F1 Mice
Female
B6C3F1 Mice
Concentrations
in air

Chamber control, 31.2, 62.5, and 125 ppm

Chamber control, 31.2, 62.5, and 125 ppm

Chamber control, 62.5, 125, and 250 ppm

Chamber control, 62.5, 125, and 250 ppm

Body weights

Exposed groups similar to the chamber control group

125 ppm group less than the chamber control group

Exposed groups generally less than the chamber control group

Exposed groups less than the chamber control group

Survival rates

19/50, 11/50, 21/50, 24/50

29/50, 27/50, 23/50, 21/50

39/50, 39/50, 27/50, 26/50

29/50, 31/50, 33/50, 36/50

Nonneoplastic effects

Nose: olfactory epithelium, hyaline degeneration (13/48, 21/49, 23/49, 40/50)

Liver: Kupffer cell pigmentation (23/50, 30/50, 34/50, 42/50)

Nose: olfactory epithelium, hyaline degeneration (13/50, 18/48, 28/50, 40/49)

Liver: Kupffer cell pigmentation (15/50, 19/50, 36/50, 47/50)

Forestomach: ulcer (1/50, 2/50, 9/49, 3/48); epithelium hyperplasia (1/50, 7/50, 16/49, 21/48)

Liver: Kupffer cell pigmentation (0/50, 0/50, 8/49, 30/49)

Spleen: hematopoietic cell proliferation (12/50, 11/50, 26/48, 42/49); hemosiderin pigmentation (0/50, 6/50, 45/48, 44/49)

Bone Marrow: hyperplasia (0/50, 1/50, 9/49, 5/50)

 

Forestomach: ulcer (1/50, 7/50, 13/49, 22/50); epithelium hyperplasia (6/50, 27/50, 42/49, 44/50)

Liver: Kupffer cell pigmentation (0/50, 5/50, 25/49, 44/50)

Spleen: hematopoietic cell proliferation (24/50, 29/50, 32/49, 35/50); hemosiderin pigmentation (39/50, 44/50, 46/49, 48/50)

Nose: olfactory epithelium, hyaline degeneration (6/50, 14/50, 11/49, 12/50); respiratory epithelium, hyaline degeneration (17/50, 35/50, 26/49, 23/50)

Neoplastic effects

None

None

Liver: hemangiosarcoma (0/50, 1/50, 2/49, 4/49)

Forestomach: squamous cell papilloma (0/50, 1/50, 2/50, 5/50); squamous cell papilloma or carcinoma (0/50, 1/50, 2/50, 6/50)

Uncertain findings

None

Adrenal Medulla: benign or malignant pheochromocytoma (3/50, 4/50, 1/49, 8/49)

Forestomach: squamous cell papilloma (1/50, 1/50, 2/49, 2/49)

Liver: hepatocellular carcinoma (10/50, 11/50, 16/49, 21/49)

None

Level of evidence of carcinogenic activity

No evidence

Equivocal evidence

Some evidence

Some evidence

Genetic toxicology
Salmonella typhimurium gene mutations:

Negative in strains TA97, TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537, with and without S9

Sister chromatid exchanges
Cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro:


Negative with and without S9

Chromosomal aberrations
Cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro:


Negative with and without S9

Micronucleated erythrocytes
Rat bone marrow in vivo:


Negative

Mouse bone marrow in vivo:

Negative

Report Date: March, 2000

Pathology Tables, Survival and Growth Curves from NTP 2-year Studies

Target Organs & Incidences from 2-year Studies


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