National Toxicology Program

National Toxicology Program
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Abstract for TR-514 - trans-Cinnamaldehyde (Microencapsulated) (CASRN 14371-10-9)

Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of trans-Cinnamaldehyde (CAS No. 14371-10-9) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Feed Studies)

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Chemical Formula:  C9H8O

Cinnamaldehyde is used in foods, beverages, medical products, perfumes, cosmetics, soaps, detergents, creams, and lotions. Cinnamaldehyde has been used as a filtering agent and a rubber reinforcing agent and is used as a brightener in electroplating processes, as an animal repellent, as an insect attractant, and as an antifungal agent. trans-cinnamaldehyde was nominated for study by the Food and Drug Administration based on its widespread use as a flavor and fragrance ingredient and its structural similarity to cinnamyl anthranilate and 3,4,5-trimethoxy cinnamaldehyde, two known rodent carcinogens. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to trans-cinnamaldehyde (at least 95% pure) in feed for 3 months or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium, cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells, Drosophila melanogaster, and mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes.

3-MONTH STUDY IN RATS

Groups of 10 male and 10 female F344/N rats were fed diets containing 4,100, 8,200, 16,500, or 33,000 ppm microencapsulated trans-cinnamaldehyde (equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 275, 625, 1,300, or 4,000 mg trans-cinnamaldehyde/kg body weight to males and 300, 570, 1,090, or 3,100 mg/kg to females) for 3 months. Additional groups of 10 male and 10 female rats received untreated feed (untreated controls) or feed containing placebo microcapsules (vehicle controls). All rats survived to the end of the study. Mean body weights of all exposed groups of males and 16,500 and 33,000 ppm females were significantly less than those of the vehicle controls, and 33,000 ppm males lost weight during the study. Feed consumption by exposed groups of males and females was less than that by the vehicle controls throughout the study. Clinical chemistry results of these studies indicated that trans-cinnamaldehyde administration, at the doses selected, induced an increase in serum bile acid concentration that suggests a hepatic effect in both male and female rats. Gross lesions observed at necropsy included multifocal to diffuse white nodules of the forestomach mucosa in 8,200 ppm or greater males and females. Increased incidences of nonneoplastic lesions of the forestomach included squamous epithelial hyperplasia in 8,200 ppm or greater males and females and chronic active inflammation in 33,000 ppm males and 16,500 and 33,000 ppm females.

3-MONTH STUDY IN MICE

Groups of 10 male and 10 female B6C3F1 mice were fed diets containing 4,100, 8,200, 16,500, or 33,000 ppm microencapsulated trans-cinnamaldehyde (equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 650, 1,320, 2,550, and 5,475 mg/kg to males and 625, 1,380, 2,680, and 5,200 mg/kg to females) for 3 months. Additional groups of 10 male and 10 female mice received untreated feed (untreated controls) or feed containing placebo microcapsules (vehicle controls). One vehicle control male, one 4,100 ppm male, and one 33,000 ppm male died during the first week of the study due to inanition that resulted from difficulty with the feeder. Five 16,500 ppm and eight 33,000 ppm male mice died during weeks 2 and 3 due to unpalatability of the dosed feed. Mean body weights of all exposed groups of males and of females exposed to 8,200 ppm or greater were significantly less than those of the vehicle controls. Feed consumption by 16,500 and 33,000 ppm mice was less than that by the vehicle controls during weeks 1 and 2. The incidence of squamous epithelial hyperplasia of the forestomach mucosa in 33,000 ppm females was significantly increased, and olfactory epithelial degeneration of the nasal cavity occurred in 16,500 and 33,000 ppm males and females.

2-YEAR STUDY IN RATS

Groups of 50 male and 50 female F344/N rats were fed diets containing 1,000, 2,100, or 4,100 ppm microencapsulated trans-cinnamaldehyde for 2 years. Additional groups of 50 male and 50 female rats received untreated feed (untreated controls) or feed containing placebo microcapsules (vehicle controls). Dietary concentrations of 1,000, 2,100, or 4,100 ppm delivered average daily doses of approximately 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg to males and females. Survival of 4,100 ppm males was greater than that of the vehicle controls. Mean body weights of 4,100 ppm males and females were generally less than those of the vehicle controls throughout the study. Feed consumption by 2,100 and 4,100 ppm males and 4,100 ppm females was less than that by the vehicle controls at the beginning and end of the study. There were no neoplasms or nonneoplastic lesions that were attributed to exposure to trans-cinnamaldehyde.

2-YEAR STUDY IN MICE

Groups of 50 male and 50 female B6C3F1 mice were fed diets containing 1,000, 2,100, or 4,100 ppm microencapsulated trans-cinnamaldehyde for 2 years. Additional groups of 50 male and 50 female mice received untreated feed (untreated controls) or feed containing placebo microcapsules (vehicle controls). Dietary concentrations of 1,000, 2,100, or 4,100 ppm delivered average daily doses of approximately 125, 270, or 550 mg/kg to males and females. Survival of males in the 2,100 ppm group was less than that of the vehicle control group. Mean body weights of 2,100 and 4,100 ppm males and females were generally less than those of the vehicle controls throughout the study, and mean body weights of 1,000 ppm males were less after week 74. Feed consumption by exposed mice was similar to that by the vehicle controls. The incidences of olfactory epithelial pigmentation in 4,100 ppm males and in 2,100 and 4,100 females were significantly greater than those in vehicle controls. There were no neoplasms that were attributed to exposure to trans-cinnamaldehyde.

GENETIC TOXICOLOGY

trans-cinnamaldehyde was mutagenic in S. typhimurium strain TA100 in the presence of induced mouse liver S9 activation enzymes only. All other strain and activation combinations, including the standard rat and hamster derived liver S9 fractions yielded negative results. trans-cinnamaldehyde induced sister chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster ovary cells with and without induced rat liver S9 activation. No significant increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations occurred in Chinese hamster ovary cells cultured with trans-cinnamaldehyde, with or without induced rat liver S9. In tests for induction of germ cell genetic damage in male Drosophila melanogaster, trans-cinnamaldehyde induced a significant increase in the frequency of sexlinked recessive lethal mutations when administered by abdominal injection; however, no induction of reciprocal translocations occurred in germ cells of treated males. No increase in the frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes was observed in peripheral blood of male or female mice administered trans-cinnamaldehyde in dosed feed for 3 months.

CONCLUSIONS

Under the conditions of this 2-year feed study, there was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of transcinnamaldehyde in male or female F344/N rats exposed to 1,000, 2,100, or 4,100 ppm. There was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde in male or female B6C3F1 mice exposed to 1,000, 2,100, or 4,100 ppm.

Exposure to trans-cinnamaldehyde resulted in olfactory epithelial pigmentation in male and female mice.

Synonyms: trans-Benzenepropenal; (E)-cinnamaldehyde; cinnamaldehyde; trans-cinnamic aldehyde; (E)-cinnamyl aldehyde; trans-cinnamylaldehyde; (E)-3-phenylacrolein; (E)-3-phenylpropenal; trans-3-phenyl-2-propenal; (E)-3-phenylprop-2-enal; (E)-3-phenyl-2-propenal; trans-3-phenylpropenal; 2-propenal, 3-phenyl-, (E)-; 2-propenal, 3-phenyl

 

Summary of the 2-Year Carcinogenesis Studies of trans-Cinnamaldehyde
 

Male
F344/N Rats

Female
F344/N Rats

Male
B6C3F1 Mice

Female
B6C3F1 Mice

Concentrations in feed

Vehicle control, 1,000, 2,100, or 4,100 ppm

Vehicle control, 1,000, 2,100, or 4,100 ppm

Vehicle control, 1,000, 2,100, or 4,100 ppm

Vehicle control, 1,000, 2,100, or 4,100 ppm

Body weights

4,100 ppm group less than that of the vehicle control group

4,100 ppm group less than that of the vehicle control group

2,100 and 4,100 ppm groups less than that of the vehicle control group

2,100 and 4,100 ppm groups less than that of the vehicle control group

Survival rates

31/50, 36/50, 27/50, 41/50

36/50, 33/50, 35/49, 33/50

47/50, 46/50, 39/50, 49/50

41/50, 37/50, 44/50, 43/50

Nonneoplastic effects

None

None

Nose: olfactory epithelium, pigmentation (0/48, 0/48, 3/48, 26/50)

Nose: olfactory epithelium, pigmentation (0/50, 0/50, 8/50, 46/50)

Neoplastic effects

None

None

None

None

Level of evidence of carcinogenic activity

No evidence

No evidence

No evidence

No evidence

Genetic Toxicology of trans-Cinnamaldehyde
Assay Test System Results
Bacterial Mutagenicity Salmonella typhimurium gene mutations: Negative in strains TA98, TA102, TA104, TA1535, and TA1537 with and without S9; positive in strain TA100 with mouse S9
Sister chromatid exchanges Cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro: Positive with and without S9
Chromosomal aberrations Cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro: Negative with and without S9
Sex-linked recessive lethal mutations Drosophila melanogaster: Positive
Reciprocal translocations Drosophila melanogaster: Negative
Micronucleated erythrocytes Mouse peripheral blood in vivo: Negative

Report Date: February 2004

Pathology Tables, Survival and Growth Curves from NTP 2-year Studies

Target Organs & Incidences from 2-year Studies


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