U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

The .gov means it's official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you're on a federal government site.


The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

NTP Logo

Annual Report for Fiscal Year 2016

Annual Report for Fiscal Year 2016

14th Report on Carcinogens

NTP submitted the 14th Report on Carcinogens (RoC) to the Health and Human Services (HHS) Secretary for review and approval in FY 2016 and HHS released the 14th RoC on November 3, 2016. This cumulative report contains 248 listings, of which seven were newly reviewed.

The chemical trichloroethylene (TCE), and the metallic element cobalt and cobalt compounds that release cobalt ions in vivo, were recommended to be added to the list, as well as five viruses that have been linked to cancer in humans. The five viruses include human immunodeficiency virus type 1, human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1, Epstein-Barr virus, Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, and Merkel cell polyomavirus.

Newly Listed Substances

Substance Listing Status Description
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Known to be a human carcinogen Virus
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Known to be a human carcinogen Virus
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) Known to be a human carcinogen Virus
Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) Known to be a human carcinogen Virus
Merkel cell polyomavrius (MCV) Known to be a human carcinogen Virus
Trichloroethylene (TCE) Known to be a human carcinogen Industrial solvent
Cobalt and cobalt compounds that release cobalt ion in vivo Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen A metal and its compounds

The Report on Carcinogens is a congressionally mandated report prepared for the HHS Secretary by NTP. The report identifies many different types of environmental factors, collectively called substances, including chemicals; infectious agents, such as viruses; physical agents, such as X-rays and ultraviolet radiation; mixtures of chemicals; and exposure scenarios in two categories — known to be a human carcinogen and reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen. The new report is available at https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/roc14.

It’s important to note that a listing in the report indicates a cancer hazard, but does not by itself mean that a substance or a virus will cause cancer. Many factors, including an individual’s susceptibility to a substance, and the amount and duration of exposure, can affect whether a person will develop cancer. In the case of viruses, a weakened immune system may also be a contributing factor.  People should talk to their health care providers about decreasing their cancer risk from viruses.

The Report on Carcinogens, 14th Edition, is prepared by the National Toxicology Program (NTP). NTP is a federal, interagency program, headquartered at the NIEHS, whose goal is to safeguard the public by identifying substances in the environment that may affect human health. For more information about NTP and its programs, visit https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov.

14th RoC