ICCVAM Biennial Report 2014-2015

ICCVAM Biennial Report 2014-2015

Acronyms and Abbreviations

3Rs: Principles of replacement, reduction, or refinement of animal use for scientific research or product safety testing

ACD: Allergic contact dermatitis

ADMET CoE: Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination, and Toxicology Center of Excellence (U.S. Department of Defense)

AOP: Adverse outcome pathway

AR: Androgen receptor

ASCCT: American Society for Cellular and Computational Toxicology

ATSDR: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

CPSC: U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission

CVB: Center for Veterinary Biologics (U.S. Department of Agriculture)

CYP: Cytochrome P450 enzymes

DNTP: Division of the National Toxicology Program (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences)

DOD: U.S. Department of Defense

DOE: U.S. Department of Energy

DOI: U.S. Department of the Interior

DOT: U.S. Department of Transportation

DREAM: Dialogue for Reverse Engineering Assessments and Methods

EDQM: European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and HealthCare

EDSP: Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)

EPA: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

EURL ECVAM: European Union Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing

FDA: U.S. Food and Drug Administration

FR: Federal Register

HIST: Murine histamine sensitization test

HSDB: Hazardous Substance Data Bank (National Library of Medicine)

HTS: High throughput screening

IATA: Integrated approach to testing and assessment

ICATM: International Cooperation on Alternative Test Methods

ICCVAM: Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods

ICH: International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use

ILS: Integrated Laboratory Systems, Inc.

IVIVE: In vitro to in vivo extrapolation

JaCVAM: Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods

KoCVAM: Korean Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods

LD50: In traditional acute systemic toxicity tests, the dose that produces lethality in 50% of the animals tested

LLNA: Murine local lymph node assay

NC3Rs: National Centre for the 3Rs (United Kingdom)

NCI: National Cancer Institute (National Institutes of Health)

NCSU: North Carolina State University

NICEATM: National Toxicology Program Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods

NIEHS: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (National Institutes of Health)

NIOSH: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

NIH: National Institutes of Health

NLM: National Library of Medicine (National Institutes of Health)

NTP: National Toxicology Program

OECD: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

OSHA: Occupational Safety and Health Administration

P&G: Procter & Gamble

PISC: PETA International Science Consortium, Ltd.

QSAR: Quantitative structure-activity relationship

REACH: Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (European Union legislation)

SACATM: Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods

SEAZIT: Systematic Evaluation of the Application of Zebrafish in Toxicology (National Toxicology Program)

SOT: Society of Toxicology

STE: Short time exposure

Tox21: Collaborative effort among four U.S. federal government agencies to develop more efficient approaches to predict how chemicals may affect human health

ToxCast: Toxicity Forecaster (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)

TOXNET: Toxicology Data Network (National Library of Medicine)

U.S.C.: United States Code

USDA: U.S. Department of Agriculture

USGS: U.S. Geological Survey (U.S. Department of the Interior)

XCEL: Ex Vivo Countermeasure Evolution and Licensure Program (U.S. Department of Defense)