COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation.

Get the latest public health information from CDC and research information from NIH.

U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

The .gov means it's official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you're on a federal government site.


The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.


ICCVAM Biennial Report 2016-2017

Biennial Progress Report 2016-2017 Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods

Acronyms and Abbreviations

3Rs: Principles of replacement, reduction, or refinement of animal use for scientific research or product safety testing

ACD: Allergic contact dermatitis

ADMET CoE: Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination, and Toxicology Center of Excellence (U.S. Department of Defense)

ATSDR: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

CaCVAM: Canadian Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods

CDRH: Center for Devices and Radiological Health (U.S. Food and Drug Administration)

CPSC: U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission

CSTP: Cellular Sentinels Toxicity Platform (U.S. Air Force)

CVB: Center for Veterinary Biologics (U.S. Department of Agriculture)

DOD: U.S. Department of Defense

DOE: U.S. Department of Energy

DOI: U.S. Department of the Interior

DOT: U.S. Department of Transportation

DPRA: Direct peptide reactivity assay

EASA: Electrophilic allergen screening assay

EPA: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

EURL ECVAM: European Union Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing

FDA: U.S. Food and Drug Administration

FIFRA: Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act

FR: Federal Register

GHS: United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals

h-CLAT: Human cell line activation test

HTS: High-throughput screening

IATA: Integrated approach to testing and assessment

ICATM: International Cooperation on Alternative Test Methods

ICCVAM: Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods

ICH: International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use

ILS: Integrated Laboratory Systems, Inc.

IVIVE: In vitro to in vivo extrapolation

JaCVAM: Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods

KoCVAM: Korean Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods

LC50: In traditional acute inhalation or aquatic toxicity tests, the concentration that produces lethality in 50% of the animals tested

LD50: In traditional acute systemic toxicity tests, the dose that produces lethality in 50% of the animals tested

LLNA: Murine local lymph node assay

NCI: National Cancer Institute (National Institutes of Health)

NICEATM: National Toxicology Program Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods

NIEHS: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (National Institutes of Health)

NIH: National Institutes of Health

NIOSH: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

NIST: National Institute of Standards and Technology

NLM: National Library of Medicine (National Institutes of Health)

NTP: National Toxicology Program

OECD: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

OSHA: Occupational Safety and Health Administration

QSAR: Quantitative structure-activity relationship

SACATM: Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods

SEAZIT: Systematic Evaluation of the Application of Zebrafish in Toxicology (National Toxicology Program)

Tox21: Collaborative effort among four U.S. federal government agencies to develop more efficient approaches to predict how chemicals may affect human health

ToxCast: Toxicity Forecaster (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)

U.S.C.: United States Code

USAF: U.S. Air Force

USDA: U.S. Department of Agriculture

USGS: U.S. Geological Survey (U.S. Department of the Interior)

XCEL: Ex Vivo Countermeasure Evolution and Licensure Program (U.S. Department of Defense)