ICCVAM Biennial Report 2016-2017

ICCVAM Biennial Report 2016-2017

Acronyms and Abbreviations

3Rs: Principles of replacement, reduction, or refinement of animal use for scientific research or product safety testing

ACD: Allergic contact dermatitis

ADMET CoE: Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination, and Toxicology Center of Excellence (U.S. Department of Defense)

ATSDR: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

CaCVAM: Canadian Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods

CDRH: Center for Devices and Radiological Health (U.S. Food and Drug Administration)

CPSC: U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission

CSTP: Cellular Sentinels Toxicity Platform (U.S. Air Force)

CVB: Center for Veterinary Biologics (U.S. Department of Agriculture)

DOD: U.S. Department of Defense

DOE: U.S. Department of Energy

DOI: U.S. Department of the Interior

DOT: U.S. Department of Transportation

DPRA: Direct peptide reactivity assay

EASA: Electrophilic allergen screening assay

EPA: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

EURL ECVAM: European Union Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing

FDA: U.S. Food and Drug Administration

FIFRA: Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act

FR: Federal Register

GHS: United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals

h-CLAT: Human cell line activation test

HTS: High-throughput screening

IATA: Integrated approach to testing and assessment

ICATM: International Cooperation on Alternative Test Methods

ICCVAM: Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods

ICH: International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use

ILS: Integrated Laboratory Systems, Inc.

IVIVE: In vitro to in vivo extrapolation

JaCVAM: Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods

KoCVAM: Korean Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods

LC50: In traditional acute inhalation or aquatic toxicity tests, the concentration that produces lethality in 50% of the animals tested

LD50: In traditional acute systemic toxicity tests, the dose that produces lethality in 50% of the animals tested

LLNA: Murine local lymph node assay

NCI: National Cancer Institute (National Institutes of Health)

NICEATM: National Toxicology Program Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods

NIEHS: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (National Institutes of Health)

NIH: National Institutes of Health

NIOSH: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

NIST: National Institute of Standards and Technology

NLM: National Library of Medicine (National Institutes of Health)

NTP: National Toxicology Program

OECD: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

OSHA: Occupational Safety and Health Administration

QSAR: Quantitative structure-activity relationship

SACATM: Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods

SEAZIT: Systematic Evaluation of the Application of Zebrafish in Toxicology (National Toxicology Program)

Tox21: Collaborative effort among four U.S. federal government agencies to develop more efficient approaches to predict how chemicals may affect human health

ToxCast: Toxicity Forecaster (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)

U.S.C.: United States Code

USAF: U.S. Air Force

USDA: U.S. Department of Agriculture

USGS: U.S. Geological Survey (U.S. Department of the Interior)

XCEL: Ex Vivo Countermeasure Evolution and Licensure Program (U.S. Department of Defense)