U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

The .gov means it's official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you're on a federal government site.


The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.


ICCVAM Biennial Report 2018-2019

Biennial Progress Report 2018-2019 Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods

Addressing Emerging Contaminants

The term NAMs refers to any non-animal technology, methodology, approach, or combination of these that can be used to provide information on chemical hazard and risk assessment. NAMs are being applied to address public concern about exposure and environmental and health effects of emerging contaminants, driven in part by reports of potential human exposures to substances with limited information available on toxicity and exposure. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are examples of such emerging contaminants. These substances present a complex problem, involving multiple chemicals, multiple routes of exposure, and multiple potential human health and ecological outcomes of concern. The hundreds of untested PFAS provide a scenario in which traditional one-by-one toxicity testing would require commitment of tremendous resources and assessment-relevant information would not be available for years. EPA and NTP are generating data through in vitro high-throughput toxicity testing and high-throughput toxicokinetic assays to inform hazard effects characterization and promote prioritization of chemicals for further in vivo testing (Patlewicz et al. 2019). This effort also will address PFAS lacking toxicity information by facilitating read-across approaches to infer the toxicological properties across the broader range of PFAS.