Stomach, Glandular Stomach, Epithelium - Vacuolation, Cytoplasmic

Image of vacuolation, cytoplasmic in the glandular stomach epithelium from a male F344/N rat in a subchronic study
Stomach, Glandular stomach, Epithelium - Vacuolation, Cytoplasmic in a male F344/N rat from a subchronic study. There is vacuolation of epithelial cells in the mucosal glands.
Figure 1 of 2
Image of vacuolation, cytoplasmic in the glandular stomach epithelium from a male F344/N rat in a subchronic study
Stomach, Glandular stomach, Epithelium - Vacuolation, Cytoplasmic in a male F344/N rat from a subchronic study (higher magnification of Figure 1). There is vacuolation of epithelial cells in the mucosal glands.
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comment:

Cytoplasmic vacuolation is generally considered to be an early form of degeneration. Cytoplasmic vacuolization ( Figure 1image opens in a pop-up window and Figure 2image opens in a pop-up window ) manifests as increased cell size and volume resulting from an overload of fluid caused by a failure of the cell to maintain normal homeostasis and regulate the ingress and excretion of fluid. Histologically, cells are enlarged, and the cytoplasm of affected cells contains translucent vacuoles. The vacuoles may represent distended endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi or swollen mitochondria, indicative of cell injury. In some cases, the vacuoles may represent small lipid droplets. Electron microscopy is required to definitively identify the true nature of the vacuoles.

recommendation:

Whenever present, this change should be diagnosed as "glandular stomach, epithelium - vacuolation, cytoplasmic" and graded based on the degree of cellular swelling and extent and number of areas affected. If there is other evidence of degeneration (e.g., sloughing or loss of cells, or nuclear changes), the lesion may be diagnosed as degeneration. If two or more lesions (e.g., cytoplasmic vacuolation, vesicles, bulla, necrosis, ulcers, inflammation) are considered different manifestations of the same lesion, the study pathologist should explain this in detail in the narrative. If inflammation is a prominent component of the lesion, then it should be diagnosed and graded separately.

references:

Haggerty HG, Warner WA, Comereski CR, Peden WM, Mezza LE, Damle BD, Siegall CB, Davidson TJ. 1999. BR96 sFv-PE40 immunotoxin: Nonclinical safety assessment. Toxicol Pathol 27:87-94.
Full Text: http://tpx.sagepub.com/content/27/1/87.full.pdf

Myers RK, McGavin MD. 2007. Cellular and tissue responses to injury. In: Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease, 4th ed (McGavin MD, Zachary JF, eds). Mosby, St Louis, MO, 3-62.

National Toxicology Program. 2007. NTP TOX-72. Toxicity Studies of Sodium Dichromate Dihydrate (CAS No. 7789-12-0) Administered in Drinking Water to F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice and Male Balb/c and am3-C57BL/6 Mice. NTP, Research Triangle Park, NC.
Abstract: http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/11170