Liver, Oval Cell - Hyperplasia

Image of hyperplasia in the liver from a female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rat in a chronic study
Oval cell hyperplasia in a female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rat from a chronic study.
Figure 1 of 4
Image of hyperplasia in the liver from a female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rat in a chronic study
Oval cell hyperplasia in a female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rat from a chronic study.
Figure 2 of 4
Image of hyperplasia in the liver from a female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rat in a chronic study
Oval cell hyperplasia in a female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rat from a chronic study.
Figure 3 of 4
Image of hyperplasia in the liver from a female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rat in a chronic study
Oval cell hyperplasia in a female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rat from a chronic study.
Figure 4 of 4
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comment:

Oval cell hyperplasia ( Figure 1image opens in a pop-up window ) is rarely seen in control animals. It typically begins either in periportal areas or in subcapsular regions of the liver. The proliferating oval cells are spindloid and initially extend out from portal areas in a linear array; they may encircle hepatic lobules, and in severe cases they may form irregular solid nests of proliferating cells. Since oval cell hyperplasia occurs primarily in animals treated with hepatotoxic xenobiotics or in cases of infection, it is usually associated with varying degrees of hepatocyte degeneration and necrosis and bile duct hyperplasia. Figure 1image opens in a pop-up window was graded as 2+ (mild), and Figure 2image opens in a pop-up window , Figure 3image opens in a pop-up window , and Figure 4image opens in a pop-up window as 4+ (marked).

recommendation:

Oval cell hyperplasia should be diagnosed and given a severity grade whenever present, even when part of a complex set of hepatic changes. The pattern and extent of oval cell hyperplasia should be described in the pathology narrative along with accompanying hepatic changes.

references:

Cattley RC, Popp JA. 2002. Liver. In: Handbook of Toxicologic Pathology (Haschek WM, Rousseaux CG, Wallig MA, eds). Academic Press, San Diego, 2:187-225.
Abstract: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/book/9780123302151

Eustis SL, Boorman GA, Harada T, Popp JA. 1990. Liver. In: Pathology of the Fischer Rat (Boorman GA, Eustis SL, Elwell MR, Montgomery CA, MacKenzie WF, eds). Academic Press, San Diego, 71-94.
Abstract: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/9002563

Evans JG, Lake BG. 1998. The digestive system II. Hepatobiliary system. In: Target Organ Pathology (Turton J, Hooson J, eds). Taylor and Francis, London, 61-98.
Abstract: http://www.amazon.com/Target-Organ-Pathology-Basic-Text/dp/0748401571

Greaves P. 2007. Histopathology of Preclinical Toxicity Studies: Interpretation and Relevance in Drug Safety Evaluation, 3rd ed. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Abstract: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/book/9780444527714

Harada T, Enomoto A, Boorman GA, Maronpot RR. 1999. Liver and gallbladder. In: Pathology of the Mouse: Reference and Atlas (Maronpot RR, Boorman GA, Gaul BW, eds). Cache River Press, Vienna, IL, 119-183.
Abstract: http://www.cacheriverpress.com/books/pathmouse.htm

Hardisty JF, Brix AE. 2005. Comparative hepatic toxicity: Prechronic/chronic liver toxicity in rodents. Toxicol Pathol 33:35-40.
Full Text: http://tpx.sagepub.com/content/33/1/35.full.pdf

Haschek WM, Rousseaux CG, Wallig MA. 2010. Fundamentals of Toxicologic Pathology, 2nd ed. Academic Press, San Diego, 197-235.
Abstract: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/book/9780123704696

Thoolen B, Maronpot RR, Harada T, Nyska A, Rousseaux C, Nolte T, Malarkey D, Kaufmann W, Kutter K, Deschl U, Nakae D, Gregson R, Winlove M, Brix A, Singl B, Belpoggi F, Ward JM. 2010. Hepatobiliary lesion nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for lesions in rats and mice (INHAND). Toxicol Pathol 38:5S-81S.
Full Text: http://tpx.sagepub.com/content/38/7_suppl/5S.full