Preputial Gland - Hyperplasia

Image of epithelial hyperplasia in the preputial gland from a male F344/N rat in a chronic study
Preputial Gland, Epithelium - Hyperplasia. Hyperplasia in the preputial gland in a male F344/N rat from a chronic study.
Figure 1 of 4
Image of epithelial hyperplasia in the preputial gland from a male F344/N rat in a chronic study
Preputial Gland, Epithelium - Hyperplasia. Higher magnification of Figure 1. Asterisks indicate eosinophilic granular material in the cytoplasm of hyperplastic glands in a male F344/N rat from a chronic study.
Figure 2 of 4
Image of epithelial hyperplasia in the preputial gland from a male F344/N rat in a chronic study
Preputial Gland, Duct - Hyperplasia. Arrows indicate hyperplastic squamous epithelium with an anastomosing trabecular pattern in a male F344/N rat from a chronic study.
Figure 3 of 4
Image of epithelial hyperplasia in the preputial gland from a male F344/N rat in a chronic study
Preputial Gland, Duct - Hyperplasia. Higher magnification of Figure 3 showing the interface between hyperplastic epithelium and adjacent cellular and necrotic debris within the duct lumen in a male F344/N rat from a chronic study.
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comment:

Glandular hyperplasia is characterized by an increase in the number and size of acini
( Figure 1image opens in a pop-up window and Figure 2image opens in a pop-up window ). The acinar outline is distorted by enlarged (hypertrophic) epithelial cells that may contain eosinophilic granular material (asterisks, Figure 2image opens in a pop-up window ). The hypertrophic area may marginally compress the adjoining glands. Glandular hyperplasia is age related. Ductular hyperplasia is characterized by increased thickness of ductal squamous epithelium that often forms an anastomosing trabecular pattern (arrows, Figure 3image opens in a pop-up window ). Occasionally, ductular and acinar hyperplasias may be seen in the same gland. Ductular hyperplasia is common in aged rodents and may be a precursor to squamous cell carcinoma.

Acinar hyperplasia is considered preneoplastic and should be differentiated from adenomas. In acinar hyperplasia, the acini appear larger than normal, with some crowding. Preputial glandular adenomas are more circumscribed and are associated with compression of adjacent tissue, and cellular organization with acini may be irregular. Likewise, ductular hyperplasia should be distinguished from squamous cell papillomas. The latter may form papillae supported by connective tissue cores and may have interconnecting cords of proliferative squamous epithelium.

recommendation:

Ductular and glandular hyperplasia of the preputial gland should be recorded and graded. If they occur together, both should be diagnosed. When both glands are involved, the diagnosis should be qualified as bilateral, and the severity grade should be based on the more severely affected gland.

references:

Boorman GA, Elwell MR, Mitsumori K. 1990. Male accessory sex glands, penis, and scrotum. In: Pathology of the Fischer Rat: Reference and Atlas (Boorman GA, Eustis SL, Elwell MR, Montgomery CA, MacKenzie WF, eds). Academic Press, San Diego, 419-428.
Abstract: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/9002563

Gordon LR, Majka JA, Boorman GA. 1996. Spontaneous nonneoplastic and neoplastic lesions and experimentally induced neoplasms of the testes and accessory sex glands. In: Pathobiology of the Aging Mouse, Vol 1 (Mohr U, Dungworth DL, Capen CC, Carlton WW, Sundberg JP, Ward JM, eds). ILSI Press, Washington, DC, 421-441.
Abstract: http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008994685

Haines DC, Eustis SL. 1990. Specialized sebaceous glands. In: Pathology of the Fischer Rat: Reference and Atlas (Boorman GA, Eustis SL, Elwell MR, Montgomery CA, MacKenzie WF, eds). Academic Press, San Diego, 279-293.
Abstract: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/9002563

Reznik G, Ward JM. 1981. Morphology of hyperplastic and neoplastic lesions in the clitoral and preputial gland of the F344 rat. Vet Pathol 18:228-238.
Abstract: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7467083

Rudmann D, Cardiff R, Chouinard L, Goodman D, Kuttler K, Marxfeld H, Molinolo A, Treumann S, Yoshizawa K. 2012. Proliferative and nonproliferative lesions of the rat and mouse mammary, Zymbal's, preputial, and clitoral glands. Toxicol Pathol 40:7S-39S.
Abstract: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22949413

Seely JC, Boorman GA. 1999. Mammary gland and specialized sebaceous glands. In: Pathology of the Mouse: Reference and Atlas (Maronpot RR, Boorman GA, Gaul BW, eds). Cache River Press, Vienna, IL, 613-635.
Abstract: http://www.cacheriverpress.com/books/pathmouse.htm