Scientific Review of Dyes metabolized to 3,3'-Dimethylbenzidine (DMB)
Status: Listed in the Report on Carcinogens (RoC)
Primary Uses or Exposures: Dyes metabolized to 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine are used in printing textiles, as biological stains, and in color photography.
- Appendix A: IARC. (1972). Some Inorganic Substances, Chlorinated Hydrocarbons, Aromatic Amines, N-Nitroso Compounds, and Natural Products. Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. 3,3'-Dimethylbenzidine (o-Tolidine). Lyon, France. World Health Organization. Vol 1, pp. A-1 – A-8.
- Appendix B: IARC. (1993). Occupational Exposures of Hairdressers and Barbers and Personal Use of Hair Colourants; Some Hair Dyes, Cosmetic Colourants, Industrial Dyestuffs and Aromatic Amines. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk to Humans. C.I. Acid Red 114. Lyon, France. World Health Organization. Vol 57, pp. B-1 – B-12.
- Appendix C: NTP. (1991). Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of C.I. Acid Red 114 (CAS No. 6459-94-5) in F344/N Rats (Drinking Water Studies). National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series No. 405, pp. C-1 – C-68.
- Appendix D: NTP. (1991). Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of 3,3'-Dimethylbenzidine Dihydrochloride in F344/N Rats (Drinking Water Studies). National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series No. 390, pp. D-1 – D-74.
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