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Acronyms & Abbreviations

List of acronyms and abbreviations commonly used by NTP
Acronym/Abbreviation Definition
2,4-D 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
3Rs Principles of replacement, reduction, or refinement of animal use for scientific research or product safety testing
A Adenine
AA Aristolochic acid
AAN Aristolochic acid nephropathy
ABF Artificial butter flavoring(s)
ACGIH American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
ACD Allergic contact dermatitis
ADH Alcohol dehydrogenase
ADME Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion
ADMET CoE Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination, and Toxicology Center of Excellence (U.S. Department of Defense)
AIDS Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
ALT Alanine transaminase
ANSI American National Standards Institute
AOP Adverse outcome pathway
AP1 Activator protein 1
AR Androgen receptor
ASCCT American Society for Cellular and Computational Toxicology
AST American Society of Transplantation
ATLL Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma
ATSDR Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
AZT Azidothymidine
BEI Biological exposure index
BEN Balkan endemic nephropathy
BOP Bureau of Prisons
BRCA Breast cancer susceptibility proteins
BSC Board of Scientific Counselors
b.w. Body weight
C Cytosine
cART Combined antiretroviral therapy
CAS Chemical Abstracts Service
CAS No. Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number
CASRN Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number
CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
C. elegans Caenorhabditis elegans, a type of roundworm
CFR Code of Federal Regulations
CEBS Chemical Effects in Biological Systems (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences)
CHO Chinese hamster ovary
CI Confidence interval
C.I. Colour Index™
CIN Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
CLARITY-BPA Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on Bisphenol A Toxicity
CoCrMo Cobalt-chromium-molybdenum
COX Cyclooxygenase
CPSC Consumer Product Safety Commission
CVB Center for Veterinary Biologics (U.S. Department of Agriculture)
CYP Cytochrome P450
dA-AAI 7-(deoxyadenosin-N6-yl)-aristolactam I
dA-AAII 7-(deoxyadenosin-N6-yl)-aristolactam II
DDD 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane
DDE 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene
DDT Di­chloro­di­phenyl­tri­chloro­ethane
dec Decomposes
dG Deoxyguanosine
dG-AAI 7-(deoxyguanosin-N2-yl)-aristolactam I
dG-AAII 7-(deoxyguanosin-N2-yl)-aristolactam II
DHHS Department of Health and Human Services
DHP Di­hydro­pyrrolizine
DHS Department of Homeland Security
DMDTC Di­methyl­di­thio­carbamate
DNA Deoxy­ribo­nucleic acid
DNase Deoxy­ribo­nuclease
DNT Dinotro­toluene
DNTP Division of the National Toxicology Program (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences)
DOE U.S. Department of Energy
DoD U.S. Department of Defense
DOI
  1. U.S. Department of the Interior
  2. Digital object identifier
DOT U.S. Department of Transportation
DREAM Dialogue for Reverse Engineering Assessments and Methods
DVA U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs
EBNA Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen
EBV Epstein-Barr virus
ed.
  1. Edition
  2. Editor(s)
EDQM European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and HealthCare
EDSP Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)
EFV Efavirenz
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
EURL ECVAM European Union Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing
F344 Fischer 344 (rats)
FANC Fanconi anemia complementation group proteins
FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration
FR Federal Register
FTC Emtricitabine (also known as 2',3'-dideoxy-5-fluoro-3'-thiacytidine)
G Guanine
GST Glutathione S-transferase
GST-P+ Glutathione S-transferase placental form positive
GSTT1 Glutathione S-transferase theta 1 hour(s)
HAART Highly active antiretroviral therapy
HAM/TSP HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis
HBeAg Hepatitis B e antigen
HBsAg Hepatitis B surface antigen
HBV Hepatitis B virus
HBZ HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper factor
HCA Heterocyclic amine
HCT/Ps Human cells, tissues, and cellular and tissue-based products
HCV Hepatitis C virus
HHE Health Hazard Evaluation (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health)
HHV Human herpesvirus
HHS Health and Human Services
HIF-1α Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha
HIST Murine histamine sensitization test
HIV Human immunodeficiency virus
HIVMA HIV Medicine Association
HpCDD Hepta­chloro­dibenzo-p-dioxin
HPLC High performance liquid chromatography
HPV Human papillomavirus
HRSA Health Resources and Services Administration
HSDB Hazardous Substance Data Bank (National Library of Medicine)
HTLV-1 Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1
HTS High-throughput screening
HUD Housing and Urban Development
HxCDD Hexa­chloro­dibenzo-p-dioxin
IARC International Agency for Research on Cancer
IATA Integrated approach to testing and assessment
ICCVAM Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods
ICH International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use
IDLH Immediately dangerous to life and health
IDSA Infectious Diseases Society of America
IgG Immunoglobulin G
IL Interleukin
ILS Integrated Laboratory Systems, Inc.
IRIS Integrated Risk Information System
ISO International Organization for Standardization
IVIVE In vitro to in vivo extrapolation
JaCVAM Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods
JAK/STAT Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription
JM Johns Manville
Kdis Dissolution rate
KoCVAM Korean Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods
Kow Octanol-water partition coefficient
KSHV Kaposi sarcoma–associated herpesvirus
LD50 In traditional acute systemic toxicity tests, the dose that produces lethality in 50% of the animals tested
LET Linear energy transfer
LLNA Murine local lymph node assay
LMP Latent membrane protein
LT Large T antigen
MAP Mitogen-activated protein
MCA 38 Murine colon adenocarcinoma cell line
MCL Maximum contaminant level
MCPyV Merkel cell polyomavirus
MCV Merkel cell polyomavirus
min Minute(s)
MMVF Man-made (or machine-made) vitreous fibers
MOA Mode of action
mol wt Molecular weight
mRR Meta–relative risk
N/A Not applicable
NAC/AEGL National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances
NADPH Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced form
NAICS North American Industrial Classification System
NCEH/ATSDR National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
NCI National Cancer Institute
NCSU North Carolina State University
NC3Rs National Centre for the 3Rs (United Kingdom)
NCTR National Center for Toxicological Research
ND Not detected
NextGen Advancing the Next Generation of Risk Assessment
NF Nuclear factor
NF-κB Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells
NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
NHL Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
NICEATM NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods
NIEHS National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
NIH National Institutes of Health
NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
NK Natural killer
NLM National Library of Medicine (National Institutes of Health)
NNK 4-(N-nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone
NNN N-nitrosonornicotine
No. Number
NOHS National Occupational Hazard Survey
NR Not reported
NRC Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Nrf2 Nuclear respiratory factor 2
NTP National Toxicology Program
OCDD Octa­chloro­di­benzo-p-dioxin
OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
OHAT Office of Health Assessment and Translation
OPTN Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network
OR Odds ratio
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration
P&G Procter & Gamble
PACs Polycyclic aromatic compounds
PAH Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
PBDEs Polybrominated diphenyl ethers
PCDD Polychlorinated dibenzodioxin
PCDF Polychlorinated dibenzofuran
PCP Pentachlorophenol
PCR Polymerase chain reaction
PEL Permissible exposure limit
PFOA Perfluorooctanoic acid
PFOS Perfluorooctane sulfonate
PHS Public Health Service
PISC PETA International Science Consortium, Ltd.
PI3 Phosphoinositide 3
pKb Dissociation constant
PVC Polyvinyl chloride
QSAR Quantitative structure-activity relationship
r Correlation coefficient
r2 Coefficient of determination
R-DHP R-dihydropyrrolizine
REL Recommended exposure limit
RfC Inhalation reference concentration
RfD Oral reference dose
REACH Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (European Union legislation)
RNA Ribonucleic acid
RoC Report on Carcinogens
ROS Reactive oxygen species
RQ Reportable quantity
RR
  1. Relative risk (risk ratio or rate ratio)
  2. Research report
s Second
S&S Schleicher & Schuell
SACATM Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods
S-DHP S-dihydro­pyrrolizine
SEAZIT Systematic Evaluation of the Application of Zebrafish in Toxicology (National Toxicology Program)
SIR Standardized incidence ratio
SMR Standardized mortality ratio
spp. Species (plural)
SoT Society of Toxicology
ssRNA Single-stranded RNA
sT Small T antigen
STE Short time exposure
STEL Short-term exposure limit
suppl. Supplement
T
  1. Thymine
  2. Tumor
TCBQ Tetra­chloro­benzo­quinone
TCDD Tetra­chloro­dibenzo-p-dioxin
TCE Trichloroethylene
TCHQ Tetra­chloro­hydro­quinone
TCLP Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure
TDF Tenofovir
TLV Threshold-limit value
TNT Trinitrotoluene
Tox21 Toxicology in the 21st Century; collaborative effort among four U.S. federal government agencies to develop more efficient approaches to predict how chemicals may affect human health
ToxCast Toxicity Forecaster (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)
TOXNET Toxicology Data Network (National Library of Medicine)
TPQ Threshold planning quantity
TRI Toxics Release Inventory
TSCA Toxic Substances Control Act
TSNA Tobacco-specific nitrosamine(s)
TURA Toxics Use Reduction Act
TWA Time-weighted average
U.S. United States
USAI United States of America Standards Institute
U.S.C. United States Code
USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture
USGS U.S. Geological Survey (U.S. Department of the Interior)
UV Ultraviolet
UVR Ultraviolet radiation
VCA Viral capsid antigen
VOC Volatile organic chemical
vol. Volume
v/v Volume-volume ratio
WC Tungsten carbide
WHO World Health Organization
wt. Weight
XCEL Ex Vivo Countermeasure Evolution and Licensure Program (U.S. Department of Defense)
Yr Year