National Toxicology Program

National Toxicology Program
https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/6004

Abstract for TR-430 - C.I. Direct Blue 218 (CASRN 28407-37-6)

Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of C.I. Direct Blue 218 (CAS No. 28407-37-6) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Feed Studies)

Link to the full study report in PDF. If you have difficulty accessing the document, please send email to the NTP Webmaster [ Send Email ] and identify documents/pages for which access is required.  

 

 

Chemical Formula: (C32H18N6 O16S4Na4)xCuy

C.I. Direct Blue 218 is a copper chelated dye used for cellulose, acetate, nylon, silk, wool, tissue, papers, and textile goods with a urea-formaldehyde finish. C.I. Direct Blue 218 is one of five chemicals/dyes that are part of the National Toxicology Program's Benzidine Dye Initiative, established to determine the toxicity and carcinogenicity of representative benzidine congeners, congener-derived dyes, and benzidine-derived dyes. Industrial grade C.I. Direct Blue 218 was selected for study because of its widespread use. Because of the high salt content, the dye was desalted prior to use. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies were conducted by administering C.I. Direct Blue 218 in feed to groups of male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice for 14 days, 13 weeks, and 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium, cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells, and Drosophila melanogaster.

14-DAY STUDY IN RATS

Groups of five male and five female F344/N rats were fed diets containing 0, 1,000, 3,000, 7,000, 15,000, or 30,000 ppm C.I. Direct Blue 218. All rats survived until the end of the study. Rats receiving 30,000 ppm lost weight, and the mean body weight gain of males receiving 15,000 ppm was significantly lower than that of the controls. Feed consumption by rats receiving 30,000 ppm was lower than that by the controls. Decreased organ weights at the 30,000 ppm level were related to the decreased body weights at this exposure level.

14-DAY STUDY IN MICE

Groups of five male and five female mice were fed diets containing 0, 1,000, 3,000, 7,000, 15,000, or 30,000 ppm C.I. Direct Blue 218. All mice survived until the end of the study. The final mean body weight of males receiving 30,000 ppm was 25% lower than that of controls and that of 30,000 ppm females was 20% lower than that of controls. Feed consumption by exposed and control groups was similar except for the 15,000 and 30,000 ppm groups. Feed spillage, due to reduced palatability, precluded the accurate determination of feed consumption by these two groups. Male and female mice receiving 30,000 ppm appeared hyperactive and emaciated during the last week of the study. Decreased organ weights were noted at 30,000 ppm and were attributed to the decreased mean body weights at this exposure level.

13-WEEK STUDY IN RATS

Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were fed diets containing 0, 3,000, 10,000, or 20,000 ppm C.I. Direct Blue 218. All male and female rats survived until the end of the study. Rats exposed to 3,000,10,000, or 20,000 ppm C.I. Direct Blue 218 received approximate daily doses of 200, 600 or 1,300 mg dye/kg body weight (males) and 200, 800, or 1,400 mg/kg (females). The final mean body weight of male rats receiving 20,000 ppm was 24% lower than that of the controls and the final mean body weight of female rats receiving 20,000 ppm was 15% lower than that of the controls. Feed consumption by exposed and control groups was similar except in the 20,000 ppm groups where feed spillage was noted. Absolute and relative kidney weights of rats receiving 10,000 or 20,000 ppm were significantly greater than those of controls. Significantly decreased organ weights were noted, particularly in the 20,000 ppm groups, and were attributed to the lower mean body weights at this exposure level.

The hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean erythrocyte volume, and mean erythrocyte hemoglobin values in male and female rats receiving 10,000 and 20,000 ppm were significantly lower than those of controls. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and sorbitol dehydrogenase in male and female rats receiving 20,000 ppm were significantly higher than those of controls, which is consistent with hepatocellular injury. Male rats receiving 10,000 ppm and male and female rats receiving 20,000 ppm had hepatic lesions consisting of intracytoplasmic pigment in periportal Kupffer cells, minimal to mild individual hepatocyte necrosis, increased numbers of binucleated and multinucleated hepatocytes, and minimal bile duct hyperplasia. Male and female rats receiving 20,000 ppm had yellow-green pigment within the cytoplasm of proximal convoluted tubules of the kidney. Microconcretions of mineral were observed along the corticomedullary junction of the kidney in most female rats, but the numbers of microconcretions in kidney sections were increased in females that received 20,000 ppm.

13-WEEK STUDY IN MICE

Groups of 10 male and 10 female B6C3F1 mice were fed diets containing 0, 3,000, 10,000, or 20,000 ppm C.I. Direct Blue 218. There were no deaths attributed to C.I. Direct Blue 218. Mice exposed to 3,000, 10,000, or 20,000 ppm C.I. Direct Blue 218 received approximate daily doses of 400, 1,500, or 3,600 mg dye/kg body weight (males) and 400, 1,800, or 4,000 mg/kg (females). The final mean body weight of males that received 20,000 ppm was 24% lower than that of the controls, and the final mean body weight of females that received 20,000 ppm was 14% lower than that of controls. Feed consumption by exposed mice was similar to that by controls except in the 20,000 ppm groups where feed spillage was noted. Significant differences in organ weights were noted at 20,000 ppm which were attributed primarily to the lower mean body weights in these exposure groups. The hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean erythrocyte volume, and mean erythrocyte volume, and mean erythrocyte hemoglobin values were significantly lower in males and females receiving 10,000 and 20,000 ppm. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and sorbitol dehydrogenase in male and female mice receiving 10,000 and 20,000 ppm were significantly higher than those of controls, indicating hepatic injury. Male and female mice receiving 20,000 ppm had hepatic lesions consisting of centrilobular hepatocyte hypertrophy and karyomegaly, multifocal individual hepatocyte necrosis, oval cell proliferation, and periportal Kupffer cells with intracytoplasmic pigment. Males and females receiving 20,000 ppm also had increased numbers of pigmented macrophages within the red pulp of the spleen.

2-YEAR STUDY IN RATS

The doses selected for the 2-year study of C.I. Direct Blue 218 were based on the lower final mean body weights and the occurrence of hepatic lesions in the 20,000 ppm groups in the 13-week study. Groups of 60 male and 60 female rats were fed diets containing 0, 1,000, 3,000, or 10,000 ppm C.I. Direct Blue 218 for 103 weeks. Nine or 10 rats from each group were evaluated after 15 months.

Survival, Body Weights, Feed and Compound Consumption, and Clinical Findings
Survival of female rats receiving 10,000 ppm was slightly, but not significantly, lower than that of the controls. Mean body weights of male and female rats in the 10,000 ppm groups were approximately 5% to 14% lower than those of the controls after week 15, and the final mean body weights of male and female rats at this level were 11% and 9% lower than those of the controls, respectively. Feed consumption by exposed male and female rats was similar to that by the controls and was estimated to deliver daily doses of 40, 120, and 440 mg dye/kg body weight to males and 50, 140, and 470 mg/kg to females. No chemical-related clinical signs of toxicity were noted.

Hematology and Clinical Chemistry
The hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean erythrocyte volume, and mean erythrocyte hemoglobin values in 10,000 ppm female rats were significantly lower than those of controls, while in males only the mean erythrocyte hemoglobin value was significantly lower. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and sorbitol dehydrogenase in male and female rats receiving 10,000 ppm were significantly higher than those of the controls at the 15-month interim evaluation.

Pathology Findings
Squamous cell papillomas of the oral mucosa (pharynx) occurred in five males receiving 10,000 ppm but not in the lower exposure groups or in controls. A squamous cell carcinoma occurred in one 10,000 ppm male and a benign basosquamous tumor was observed in another. The incidence of oral mucosal neoplasms in the 10,000 ppm males was significantly greater than that in controls and exceeded the range observed in untreated historical controls (lO/l,253, 0.8%; range 0%-4%). These neoplasms were considered chemical related.

Administration of C.I. Direct Blue 218 to rats produced significantly increased incidences of forestomach basal cell hyperplasia in males receiving 3,000 or 10,000 ppm (0 ppm, 0/50; 1,000 ppm, 2/50; 3,000 ppm, 10/50;10,000 ppm, 19/50) and in females receiving 10,000 ppm (1/50, 1/49, 5/50, 11/49). Further, there were marginal increased incidences of focal squamous hyperplasia in the 3,000 and 10,000 ppm males (1/50,1/50, 6/50, 4/50). Squamous cell papillomas of the forestomach were seen in two 3,000 ppm males and in one 10,000 ppm male; no papillomas were observed in the controls. A squamous cell carcinoma was also seen in one 3,000 ppm male. Because of the uncommon occurrence of forestomach neoplasms in untreated control male rats (4/1,253, 0.3%; range 0%-2%) and the slight increase in the incidence of focal hyperplasia, these neoplasms may have been chemical related.

The incidence of uterine endometrial stromal polyps in each exposed group of female rats was significantly greater than that of the controls (1/50,12/50,10/50, 10/50). Because the incidences in the exposed groups did not increase in a dose-related manner and the incidence in the controls was unusually low (historical incidence: 205/1,251,16.4%; range 2%-30%), the higher incidence of stromal polyps in the exposed groups was not considered chemical related.

2-YEAR STUDY IN MICE

The dose selection for the 2-year study was based on the lower final mean body weights and the liver lesions observed at the 20,000 ppm level in the 13-week study. Groups of 60 male and 60 female mice were fed diets containing 0, 1,000, 3,000, or 10,000 ppm C.I. Direct Blue 218 for 103 weeks. Nine or 10 mice from each exposure group were evaluated after 15 months.

Survival, Body Weights, Feed and Compound Consumption, and Clinical Findings
Survival of exposed male and female mice was similar to that of the controls. Mean body weights of male and female mice receiving 10,000 ppm were 10% to 29% lower than those of the controls during most of the study, and the final mean body weights in these groups were 19% lower than that of the controls for males and 27% lower than that of the controls for females. Feed consumption by exposed mice was similar to that by controls and the diets were estimated to deliver daily doses of approximately 120, 360, and 1,520 mg of dye/kg body weight to males and 140, 470, and 2,050 mg/kg to females. No chemical-related clinical signs of toxicity were noted.

Hematology and Clinical Chemistry
Hematocrit, hemoglobin, and mean erythrocyte volume values in males and females receiving 10,000 ppm were significantly lower than those of the controls. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and/or sorbitol dehydrogenase values in male and female mice that received 10,000 ppm were significantly higher than those of controls, which is consistent with hepatocellular damage.

Pathology Findings
The administration of C.I. Direct Blue 218 to mice produced significantly increased incidences of hepatocellular adenoma (0 ppm, 16/50; 1,000 ppm, 19/50; 3,000 ppm, 17/50; 10,000 ppm, 40/50) and hepatocellular carcinoma (7/50, 3/50, 8/50,17/50) in males receiving 10,000 ppm, and a significantly increased incidence of hepatocellular adenoma in females receiving 3,000 or 10,000 ppm (7/49, 12/50, 17/49, 41/49). In females that received 10,000 ppm, the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma was marginally increased. Consistent with these findings, the incidence of hepatocellular foci of cytologic alteration, a preneoplastic lesion, was also increased in males and females in the 10,000 ppm groups. The increased incidences of hepatocellular foci, adenomas, and carcinomas were considered chemical related.

Uncommon renal tubule neoplasms also occurred at low incidences in male mice receiving C.I. Direct Blue 218, but not in controls. Renal tubule adenomas were seen in two males receiving 1,000 ppm, one male receiving 3,000 ppm, and one male receiving 10,000 ppm. A renal tubule carcinoma was also seen in one male that received 1,000 ppm. Because renal tubule neoplasms are uncommon in male mice (4/1,366, 0.3%; range 0%-2%), these neoplasms may have been chemical related.

Carcinomas of the small intestine occurred in four male mice receiving 10,000 ppm. One was observed at the 15-month interim evaluation, while the other three were observed in mice at the end of the study. One control male mouse also had a carcinoma of the small intestine. Because of the uncommon occurrence of small intestine neoplasms in untreated male mice (12/1,374, 0.9%; range 0%-4%), the slightly higher incidence of these neoplasms in males receiving 10,000 ppm may have been chemical related. Carcinomas of the small intestine also occurred in one 3,000 ppm and one 10,000 ppm female, but the low incidences precluded drawing an association with chemical administration.

GENETIC TOXICOLOGY

C.I Direct Blue 218 was not mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, TA1535, or TA1537 tested with and without exogenous metabolic activation (S9). It was also tested in a modified Salmonella test protocol which employed reductive metabolism supplied by flavin mononucleotide or rat cecal bacteria, followed by oxidative metabolism; results of this test using strain TA1538 were also negative. C.I. Direct Blue 218 induced a small but significant increase in sister chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster ovary cells at the highest dose tested without S9. No increase in chromosomal aberrations were observed in Chinese hamster ovary cells with or without S9. C.I. Direct Blue 218 did not induce sex-linked recessive lethal mutations in germ cells of male Drosophila melanogaster.

CONCLUSIONS

Under the conditions of these 2-year feed studies, there was some evidence of carcinogenic activity of C.I. Direct Blue 218 in male F344/N rats based on the occurrence of pharyngeal neoplasms. Squamous cell neoplasms of the forestomach may have been chemical related. There was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of C.I Direct Blue 218 in female F344/N rats given 1,000, 3,000, or 10,000 ppm. There was clear evidence of carcinogenic activity of C.I. Direct Blue 218 in male and female B6C3F1 mice based on increased incidences of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas. The occurrence of a few neoplasms of the kidney and small intestine in male mice may have been related to C.I. Direct Blue 218 treatment.

The administration of C.I. Direct Blue 218 produced an increased incidence of forestomach basal cell hyperplasia in rats and hepatocellular foci of cytologic alteration in mice.

Synonyms: cuprate(4-), [mu-[(3,3'-dihydroxy[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-diyl)bis[5-amino-4-hydroxy-
2,7-naphthalnedisulfonato]](8-)]]di-, tetrasodium;
copper, [tetrahydrogen-3,3'-[(3,3'-dihydroxy-4,4'-biphenylylene)bis(azo)]bis
[5-amino-4-hdroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonato](4-)]di-, tetrasodium salt;
1-naphthol-3,6-disulfonic acid, 2,2'-(3,3'-dihydroxy-4,4'-biphenylylenebisazo)bis
[8-amino-, dicopper deriv., tetrasodium salt


Report Date: February 1994

Pathology Tables, Survival and Growth Curves from NTP 2-year Studies

Target Organs & Incidences from 2-year Studies


Return to Long Term Abstracts

NTP is located at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, part of the National Institutes of Health.