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Abstract for TR-448 - Isobutyl Nitrite (CASRN 542-56-3)

Abstract

Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Isobutyl Nitrite (CAS No. 542-56-3) in F344 Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Inhalation Studies)

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Chemical Formula: C4H9NO2

Isobutyl nitrite is used to a limited extent as an intermediate in the syntheses of aliphatic nitrites. It is also an ingredient of various incenses or room odorizers and is used as a euphoric. The chemical has also been used as a jet propellant and in the preparation of fuels. Isobutyl nitrite was nominated by the Consumer Product Safety Commission to the NTP for toxicology and carcinogenicity studies because of its possible contribution to the high incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma among male homosexual acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients and because of the lack of available data on the potential carcinogenicity of isobutyl nitrite. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to isobutyl nitrite (purity of 93% or greater) by inhalation for 16 days, 13 weeks, or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium , cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells, Drosophila melanogaster, and mouse peripheral blood.

16-DAY STUDY IN RATS

Groups of five male and five female F344/N rats were exposed to 0, 100, 200, 400, 600, or 800 ppm (approximately 420, 840, 1,700, 2,500, or 3,300 mg/m3) isobutyl nitrite by inhalation for 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for a total of 12 exposures during a 16-day period. All males and females exposed to 600 or 800 ppm and one 400 ppm female died on the first day of the study. Final mean body weights and mean body weight gains of 400 ppm males and females were significantly lower than those of the controls. Clinical findings observed in 400 ppm males and females included ocular discharge, lethargy, hunched posture, and rough coats. Absolute and relative lung weights of all exposed groups of males and of 200 and 400 ppm females were less than those of the controls. Chemical-related hyperplasia of the bronchial epithelium was observed in 200 and 400 ppm males and females and hyperplasia of the nasal turbinate epithelium was observed in rats exposed to 400 ppm or less. Hemosiderin pigmentation was observed in the spleen of 200 and 400 ppm males and females and bone marrow hematopoietic hyperplasia was observed in rats exposed to 400 ppm or less.

16-DAY STUDY IN MICE

Groups of five male and five female B6C3F1 mice were exposed to 0, 100, 200, 400, 600, or 800 ppm (approximately 420, 840, 1,700, 2,500, or 3,300 mg/m3) isobutyl nitrite by inhalation for 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for a total of 12 exposures during a 16-day period. Three males and four females exposed to 800 ppm died before the end of the study. Final mean body weights and mean body weight gains of 600 and 800 ppm males and females were significantly lower than those of the controls. Mice exposed to 400 ppm or greater were lethargic and exhibited hunched posture and rough coats. Absolute and relative lung weights of 600 and 800 ppm males and the relative lung weight of 600 ppm females were significantly greater than those of the controls. Chemical-related hyperplasia of the bronchiolar epithelium was observed in all exposed groups of males and females. Lymphocytic atrophy of the spleen and thymus was observed in males and females exposed to 400 ppm or greater.

13-WEEK STUDY IN RATS

Groups of 10 male and 10 female F344/N rats were exposed to 0, 10, 25, 75, 150, or 300 ppm (approximately 42, 105, 315, 630, or 1,260 mg/m3) isobutyl nitrite by inhalation for 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 13 weeks. All rats survived to the end of the study. Final mean body weights and mean body weight gains of 300 ppm males and females were significantly lower than those of the controls, as was the mean body weight gain of 150 ppm females. Clinical findings observed during the study included ruffled fur in 300 ppm males and females, hypoactivity in 300 ppm males, and hyperactivity in 150 and 300 ppm females. A very mild chemical-related methemoglobinemia and anemia occurred in male and female rats in the 75, 150, and 300 ppm groups. Hematopoietic hyperplasia occurred in the bone marrow of all exposed groups of males and females and was considered to be a secondary response to the anemia and methemoglobinemia. There was minimal hemosiderin pigment accumulation in the spleens of males and females exposed to 75 ppm or greater, mild to moderate epithelial cell hyperplasia of the nasal mucosa was observed in 300 ppm males and females, and minimal hyperplasia occurred in 150 ppm males and females. Hyperplasia of the bronchial epithelium was observed in 300 ppm males and females.

13-WEEK STUDY IN MICE

Groups of 10 male and 10 female B6C3F1 mice were exposed to 0, 10, 25, 75, 150, or 300 ppm (approximately 42, 105, 315, 630, or 1,260 mg/m3) isobutyl nitrite by inhalation for 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 13 weeks. There were no chemical-related deaths. Final mean body weights and mean body weight gains of 150 and 300 ppm females were significantly less than those of the controls. Final mean body weights and mean body weight gains of exposed groups of males were similar to those of the controls. There were no chemical-related clinical findings. A very mild chemical-related methemoglobinemia occurred in male and female mice in the 150 and 300 ppm groups. A very mild anemia occurred in the 300 ppm groups. In the lung, increased incidences of mild to moderate hyperplasia of the bronchiolar epithelium occurred in males and females exposed to 300 ppm. Minimal hyperplasia occurred in males exposed to 75 ppm or greater and in females exposed to 150 ppm. Minimal epithelial cell hyperplasia of the nasal mucosa was observed in 300 ppm males. Increased hematopoiesis of the spleen, secondary to the hematotoxicity, occurred in males exposed to 75 ppm or greater and in females exposed to 150 or 300 ppm. Increased hemosiderosis of the spleen occurred in males exposed to 300 ppm and in females exposed to 75 ppm or greater.

2-YEAR STUDY IN RATS

Based on the low final mean body weights, anemia, and the mild to moderate nasal mucosal lesions and the hyperplastic bronchial lesions observed in 300 ppm males and females, isobutyl nitrite exposure concentrations selected for the 2-year inhalation study in rats were 37.5, 75, and 150 ppm.

Groups of 56 male and 56 female rats were exposed to 0, 37.5, 75, or 150 ppm (equivalent to 0, 158, 315, or 630 mg/m3) isobutyl nitrite by inhalation for 6 hours per day, 5 days per week, for 103 weeks. Ten male and 10 female rats from each group were evaluated at 15 months for clinical pathology and histopathology.

Survival, Body Weights, Clinical Findings, Hematology, and Clinical Chemistry
Survival rates of exposed groups of rats were greater than those of the controls, and the survival rates of 75 and 150 ppm males were significantly greater than that of the control. Mean body weights of 150 ppm males and females were 3% to 11% lower than those of the controls throughout the course of the study. There were no clinical findings considered to be related to isobutyl nitrite exposure. A very mild methemoglobinemia and anemia occurred in male and female rats exposed to 75 or 150 ppm.

Pathology Findings
Incidences of alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma and alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma or carcinoma (combined) occurred with significant positive trends in exposed males and females, and the incidences of these neoplasms in 75 ppm males and in 150 ppm males and females were significantly greater than those in the controls. The incidence of alveolar/bronchiolar carcinoma was significantly greater in 150 ppm male rats than that in the controls. The incidences of alveolar epithelial hyperplasia were also increased in 75 and 150 ppm males and in all exposed groups of females. The incidences of mononuclear cell leukemia in exposed groups of males and females were significantly less than those in the controls.

2-YEAR STUDY IN MICE

Based on the low final mean body weight of 300 ppm females and the mild to moderate bronchiolar hyperplasia observed in 300 ppm males and females, isobutyl nitrite exposure concentrations selected for the 2-year inhalation study in mice were 37.5, 75, and 150 ppm.

Groups of 60 male and 60 female mice were exposed to 0, 37.5, 75, or 150 ppm (equivalent to 0, 158, 315, or 630 mg/m3) isobutyl nitrite by inhalation for 6 hours per day, 5 days per week, for 103 weeks. As many as 10 male and 10 female mice from each group were evaluated at 15 months for clinical pathology and histopathology.

Survival, Body Weights, Clinical Findings, and Hematology and Clinical Chemistry
Survival rates of exposed groups of males were similar to those of the controls. Survival rates of exposed groups of females were greater than those of the controls, and the survival rate in 37.5 ppm females was significantly greater than that of the controls. Mean body weights of exposed groups of males and of 37.5 and 75 ppm females were similar to those of the controls throughout the study. Mean body weights of 150 ppm females were lower than those of the controls from week 20 until the end of the study. There were no biologically significant clinical findings noted in the 2-year study in mice. A very mild methemoglobinemia and anemia occurred in male and female mice exposed to 75 or 150 ppm.

Pathology Findings
Incidences of alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma and alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma or carcinoma (combined) occurred with significant positive trends in exposed males and females, and the incidences of these neoplasms were significantly greater than those in the controls in 75 ppm males and in 150 ppm males and females. Incidences of alveolar epithelial hyperplasia were significantly increased in 75 and 150 ppm male and female mice. Thyroid gland follicular cell adenoma occurred with a significant positive trend in male mice; the incidences of thyroid gland follicular cell hyperplasia were increased in all exposed groups of males, and the incidences in males exposed to 37.5 or 150 ppm were significantly greater than those in the controls. Incidences of serous exudate and olfactory epithelium atrophy in the nose of 150 ppm females were significantly greater than those in the controls. Incidences of minimal to mild hemosiderin pigment in the spleen of 75 and 150 ppm male mice were significantly greater than those in the controls.

GENETIC TOXICOLOGY

Isobutyl nitrite was found to be mutagenic in vitro and in vivo. It induced base-pair substitution mutations in Salmonella typhimurim strains TA100 and TA1535 and sister chromatid exchanges and chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells. Positive responses in the S. typhimurium tests required S9 activation, but isobutyl nitrite induced chromosomal effects in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells with and without S9. In vivo, no induction of sex-linked recessive lethal mutations was noted in the germ cells of male Drosophila melanogaster exposed to isobutyl nitrite via feeding or injection. However, significant increases in micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes were observed in the peripheral blood of male and female mice treated with isobutyl nitrite for 90 days by inhalation.

CONCLUSIONS

Under the conditions of these 2-year inhalation studies, there was clear evidence of carcinogenic activity of isobutyl nitrite in male and female F344/N rats based on the increased incidences of alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma and alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma or carcinoma (combined). There was some evidence of carcinogenic activity of isobutyl nitrite in male and female B6C3F1 mice based on the increased incidences of alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma and alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma or carcinoma (combined) in males and females. The increased incidence of thyroid gland follicular cell adenoma in male mice may have been related to isobutyl nitrite exposure.

Exposure of rats and mice to isobutyl nitrite by inhalation for 2 years resulted in increased incidences of alveolar epithelial hyperplasia (male and female rats and mice), thyroid gland follicular cell hyperplasia and splenic hemosiderin pigmentation (male mice), and serous exudate and atrophy of the olfactory epithelium of the nose (female mice).

Exposure of rats to isobutyl nitrite by inhalation for 2 years resulted in decreased incidences of mononuclear cell leukemia in males and females.


Report Date: July 1996

Pathology Tables, Survival and Growth Curves from NTP 2-year Studies

Target Organs & Incidences from 2-year Studies


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