Chemical Formula: C19H20O4
Butyl benzyl phthalate is a plasticizer added to polymers to give flexibility and softness. It is used extensively in polyvinyl chloride and in cellulose plastics, polyvinyl acetate, polysulfides, and polyurethane. Butyl benzyl phthalate was nominated as part of a class study of phthalates. Previous studies of butyl benzyl phthalate by the NTP (1982a) resulted in chemical-related mortality in male rats beginning at about 14 weeks of exposure and, thus, were inadequate for evaluating carcinogenicity in male rats. The companion studies revealed a marginal increase in leukemia in female rats and no evidence of carcinogenicity in B6C3F1 mice. Consequently, the present evaluations were conducted only in F344/N rats. Male and female F344/N rats were given butyl benzyl phthalate (at least 97% pure) in feed for 10 weeks, 26 weeks, or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium, L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells, cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells, mouse bone marrow cells, and Drosophila melanogaster.
Groups of 15 male F344/N rats were given 0, 300, 2,800, or 25,000 ppm butyl benzyl phthalate (equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 20, 200, or 2,200 mg butyl benzyl phthalate/kg body weight) in feed for 10 weeks. All rats survived to the end of the study. The final mean body weight and body weight gain of the 25,000 ppm group were significantly less than those of the controls. Feed consumption by the 25,000 ppm group was less than that by the controls at the end of the study. A few minimal hematology changes occurred in the 25,000 ppm male rats. There was some evidence of a minimal anemia characterized by a decreased erythrocyte count and increases in mean cell hemoglobin and platelet count. The absolute and relative prostate gland weights of the 25,000 ppm males were significantly less than those of the controls. Degeneration of the seminiferous tubule germinal epithelium was observed in all males from the 25,000 ppm group. The absolute right cauda, right epididymis, and right testis weights of the 25,000 ppm males were significantly less than those of the controls. The epididymal spermatozoal concentrations in 2,800 and 25,000 ppm males were significantly less than that in the controls. Although 10 females mated to 25,000 ppm males were initially found to be sperm positive, none of these females were pregnant at necropsy. The fertility indices of males and females in the 25,000 ppm group were significantly lower than those of the controls. The maternal body weights of females mated to 300 and 2,800 ppm males were similar to those of females mated to control males. There were no significant differences in litter data between the controls and the 300 and 2,800 ppm groups.
Groups of 15 male F344/N rats were given 0, 300, 900, 2,800, 8,300, or 25,000 ppm butyl benzyl phthalate in feed for 26 weeks. Dietary levels of 300, 900, 2,800, and 8,300 ppm delivered average daily doses of approximately 30, 60, 180, and 550 mg butyl benzyl phthalate/kg body weight. The final mean body weight and body weight gain of the 25,000 ppm males were significantly less than those of the controls. Except for the 25,000 ppm males, feed consumption by all exposed groups was similar to that by the controls. An exposure-related macrocytic responsive anemia was present in the 25,000 ppm group at all time points. Additionally, minimal erythrocyte count decreases occurred sporadically in the 2,800 and 8,300 ppm groups at various time points. Reticulocyte counts were increased on days 60 and 90. Increases in mean cell hemoglobin and mean cell hemoglobin concentrations occurred in the 8,300 and 25,000 ppm rats. The absolute right cauda, right epididymis, and right testis weights and the sperm concentration of 25,000 ppm males were significantly less than those of the controls. The incidences of hypospermia and of atrophy of the seminiferous tubule in the testis and of hypospermia in the epididymis in 25,000 ppm males were significantly greater than those in the controls. Degenerative changes of the testis and epididymis in the 25,000 ppm males were qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those observed in males in the 10-week modified mating study.
Groups of 60 male F344/N rats were given 0, 3,000, 6,000, or 12,000 ppm butyl benzyl phthalate (equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 120, 240, or 500 mg butyl benzyl phthalate/kg body weight), and groups of 60 female F344/N rats were given 0, 6,000, 12,000, or 24,000 ppm butyl benzyl phthalate (equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 300, 600, or 1,200 mg/kg) in feed for 2 years.
Survival, Body Weights, and Feed Consumption
Survival of all exposed groups of male and female rats was similar to that of the controls. Mean body weights of the 12,000 ppm males and 24,000 ppm females were less than those of the controls throughout most of the study. Feed consumption by the females exposed to 24,000 ppm was less than that by the controls at the beginning of the study, but was similar to that by the controls by week 6.
Hematology and Hormone Assays
In general, hematology changes were sporadic and minor. At 6 months, a minimal decrease in erythrocyte count and an increase in mean cell hemoglobin, similar to that which occurred in the 26-week study, occurred in male rats in the 12,000 ppm group. In female rats, a decreased hematocrit value occurred at 15 months in the 24,000 ppm group. There was also a mild decrease in triiodothyronine concentrations in the 24,000 ppm females at 6 and 15 months and at the end of the study.
At 2 years, the incidences of pancreatic acinar cell adenoma and adenoma or carcinoma (combined) in 12,000 ppm males were significantly greater than those in the controls. The incidences of adenoma and of adenoma or carcinoma (combined) in 12,000 ppm males exceeded the ranges of historical controls from NTP 2-year feed studies. One carcinoma was observed in one 12,000 ppm male, and two adenomas were observed in 24,000 ppm females. At 2 years, the incidence of focal hyperplasia of the pancreatic acinar cell in 12,000 ppm males was significantly greater than that in the controls.
At 2 years, transitional epithelial papillomas in the urinary bladder were observed in one control female and in two 24,000 ppm females. The incidence of this neoplasm exceeded the range of historical controls from NTP 2-year feed studies. The incidence of transitional epithelial hyperplasia in 24,000 ppm females was significantly greater than that in the controls.
The absolute right kidney weight of 12,000 ppm females and the relative right kidney weights of all exposed groups of males and of 24,000 ppm females were significantly greater than those of the controls at the 15-month interim evaluation. The severities of renal tubule pigmentation in 12,000 ppm males and in 24,000 ppm females were greater than those in the controls at 15 months and 2 years. At 2 years, the incidences of kidney mineralization in 6,000 and 24,000 ppm females were significantly less than that in the controls, and the severity was decreased in exposed females. The incidence of preputial gland adenoma or carcinoma (combined) in 12,000 ppm male rats was significantly less than in the controls, and the incidences occurred with a negative trend.
Results from in vitro mutagenicity tests with butyl benzyl phthalate were uniformly negative. No mutagenic response was obtained in any of several strains of Salmonella typhimurium treated with up to 11,550 mg/plate butyl benzyl phthalate, with or without S9 metabolic activation enzymes. Negative results were also obtained in in vitro studies of mammalian cell systems with and without S9. No induction of trifluorothymidine resistance in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells or sister chromatid exchanges and chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells were observed. These assays also were conducted with and without S9.
No significant increase in sex-linked recessive lethal mutations was observed in germ cells of male Drosophila melanogaster after administration of butyl benzyl phthalate either in feed or by injection.
In contrast to the negative results obtained in vitro and in Drosophila, butyl benzyl phthalate gave positive responses in two in vivo studies with mice. Results of a mouse bone marrow sister chromatid exchange test were positive at sample times of 23 and 42 hours, but no confirmatory test was conducted. Chromosomal aberrations were induced in bone marrow cells of male mice sampled 17 hours after intraperitoneal injection of 5,000 mg/kg butyl benzyl phthalate.
Under the conditions of this 2-year feed study, there was some evidence of carcinogenic activity of butyl benzyl phthalate in male F344/N rats based on the increased incidences of pancreatic acinar cell adenoma and of acinar cell adenoma or carcinoma (combined). There was equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity of butyl benzyl phthalate in female 344/N rats based on the marginally increased incidences of pancreatic acinar cell adenoma and of transitional epithelial papilloma of the urinary bladder.
Exposure of rats to butyl benzyl phthalate in feed for 2 years resulted in focal hyperplasia in the pancreas in male rats and in transitional epithelial hyperplasia in the urinary bladder of female rats.
Synonyms: A13-14777; BBP; 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid butyl phenylmethyl ester (9CI); benzyl n-butyl phthalate; n-butyl benzyl phthalate; butyl phenylmethyl 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate; NCI-C54375; phthalic acid benzyl butyl ester (8CI)
Trade names: Palatinol BB; Santicizer 160; Sicol 160; Unimoll BB
|Doses||0, 3,000, 6,000, or 12,000 ppm in feed||0, 6,000, 12,000, or 24,000 ppm in feed|
|Body weights||12,000 ppm group less than control group||24,000 ppm group less than control group|
|2-Year survival rates||28/50, 20/50, 22/50, 22/50||25/50, 29/50, 29/50, 29/50|
|Nonneoplastic effects||Pancreas: focal hyperplasia (4/50, 7/49, 9/50, 12/50)||Urinary bladder: transitional epithelial hyperplasia (4/50, 0/50, 1/50, 10/50)|
|Neoplastic effects||Pancreas: acinar cell adenoma (3/50, 2/49, 3/50, 10/50); acinar cell adenoma or carcinoma (3/50, 2/49, 3/50, 11/50)||None|
|Uncertain findings||None||Pancreas: acinar cell adenoma (0/50, 0/50, 0/50, 2/50)
Urinary bladder: transitional epithelial papilloma (1/50, 0/50, 0/50, 2/50)
|Level of evidence of carcinogenic activity||Some evidence||Equivocal evidence|
|Bacterial Mutagenicity||Salmonella typhimurium gene mutations:||Negative in strains TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537 with and without S9|
|Mammalian Cell Mutagenicity||L5178Y Mouse lymphoma gene mutations:||No induction of trifluorothymidine resistance|
|Sister chromatid exchanges||Cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro:||Negative with and without S9|
|Sister chromatid exchanges||Mouse bone marrow in vivo:||Weakly positive at 23 and 42 hours|
|Chromosomal aberrations||Cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro:||Negative with and without S9|
|Chromosomal aberrations||Mouse bone marrow in vivo:||Positive at 17 hours; negative at 36 hours|
|Sex-linked recessive lethal mutations||Drosophila melanogaster||No induction of sex-linked recessive lethal mutations|
Report Date: September 1997