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Abstract for TR-489 - Magnetic Field Promotion (DMBA Initiation)

Abstract

Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Magnetic Field Promotion (DMBA Initiation) in Female Sprague-Dawley Rats (Whole-body Exposure/Gavage Studies)

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Electric and magnetic fields are associated with the production, transmission, and use of electricity; thus, the potential for human exposure is high. These elec-tric and magnetic fields are predominantly of low fre-quency (60 Hz in the United States and 50 Hz in Europe) and generally of low intensity. Because some epidemiology studies and initiation/promotion studies in rats have suggested a potential for increased breast cancer rates with increasing magnetic field exposure, the ability of 50- and 60-Hz magnetic fields to pro-mote mammary gland tumors initiated by the administration of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) was examined in female Sprague-Dawley rats in 13- and 26-week whole-body exposure studies. Additional animals were evaluated for changes in pineal gland and serum melatonin concentrations.

FIRST 13-WEEK STUDY

Groups of 100 female Sprague-Dawley rats were ad-ministered 20 mg DMBA (four weekly gavage doses of 5 mg in sesame oil) and exposed to 1 G 50-Hz, 5 G 50-Hz, or 1 G 60-Hz magnetic fields for 18.5 hours per day, 7 days per week, for 13 weeks. A group of 100 rats administered 20 mg DMBA served as DMBA controls. A group of 100 vehicle control rats was administered only sesame oil on the same schedule. Additional groups of 10 rats receiving similar treatment were evaluated for pineal gland and serum melatonin concentrations at 4, 8, or 12 weeks.

All vehicle control rats survived to the end of the study. Of the animals administered 20 mg DMBA, 6 rats in the DMBA control group, 13 in the DMBA/1 G 50-Hz group, eight in the DMBA/5 G 50-Hz group, and five in the DMBA/1 G 60-Hz group died or were removed from the study prior to the final necropsy. Final mean body weights and body weight gains of the DMBA/1 G 50-Hz and DMBA/1 G 60-Hz groups and the mean body weight gain of the DMBA/5 G 50-Hz group were slightly greater than those of the DMBA control group. Clinical findings including torso masses and ulcers (on the mammary masses) were attributed to DMBA administration.

The numbers of palpable mammary gland tumors, tumor sizes, and total tumor areas in DMBA/magnetic field groups were similar to those in the DMBA control group. Relative to the DMBA control group, exposure to magnetic fields did not significantly affect overall incidences of mammary gland neoplasms or nonneoplastic lesions in the DMBA/magnetic field groups.

SECOND 13-WEEK STUDY

Groups of 100 female Sprague-Dawley rats were ad-ministered 8 mg DMBA (four weekly gavage doses of 2 mg in sesame oil) and exposed to 1 G 50-Hz or 5 G 50-Hz magnetic fields for 18.5 hours per day, 7 days per week, for 13 weeks. A group of 100 female rats administered 8 mg DMBA served as DMBA controls. Additional groups of 10 rats receiving similar treatment were evaluated for pineal gland and serum melatonin concentrations at 4, 8, or 12 weeks.

Except for one rat in the DMBA/5 G 50-Hz group, all rats survived until the end of the study. Final mean body weights of DMBA/magnetic field groups were similar to those of the DMBA control group. Clinical findings including torso masses and ulcers were attributed to DMBA administration.

The numbers of palpable mammary gland tumors, tumor sizes, and total tumor areas in DMBA/magnetic field groups were similar to those in the DMBA control group. Relative to the DMBA control group, exposure to magnetic fields did not significantly affect overall incidences of mammary gland neoplasms or nonneoplastic lesions in the DMBA/magnetic field groups.

26-WEEK STUDY

Groups of 100 female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered 10 mg DMBA (in sesame oil) by gavage followed by exposure to 1 G 50-Hz, 5 G 50-Hz, or 1 G 60-Hz magnetic fields for 18.5 hours per day, 7 days per week, for 26 weeks. A group of 100 female rats administered 10 mg DMBA served as DMBA controls. Another 100 vehicle control rats were administered only sesame oil. Additional groups of 10 rats receiving similar treatment were evaluated for pineal gland and serum melatonin concentrations at 4, 8, or 12 weeks.

All rats in the vehicle control group survived until the end of the study. Twelve rats in the DMBA control group, 15 in the DMBA/1 G 50-Hz group, 9 in the DMBA/5 G 50-Hz group, and six in the DMBA/1 G 60-Hz group died or were removed during the study. The final mean body weights and body weight gains of the DMBA/1 G 50-Hz and DMBA/5 G 50-Hz groups were significantly greater than those of the DMBA control group. Clinical findings including torso masses, abscesses, and ulcers were attributed to DMBA administration. The pineal gland melatonin concentrations of DMBA/5 G 50-Hz and DMBA/1 G 60-Hz rats were significantly greater than that of the DMBA controls at week 12; however, these data were highly variable between individual animals within each group.

The numbers of palpable mammary gland tumors, tumor sizes, and total tumor areas in DMBA/magnetic field groups were similar to those in the DMBA controls. The incidences of mammary gland carci-noma (including multiple) in the DMBA/1 G 60-Hz group were significantly decreased relative to the DMBA control group.

CONCLUSIONS

In an initiation/promotion study in which female Sprague-Dawley rats were initiated by four weekly doses of 5 mg DMBA per rat beginning at 50 days of age and exposed to 50-Hz magnetic fields at 1 or 5 G field intensities or to 1 G 60-Hz magnetic fields for 13 weeks, there was no evidence that magnetic fields promoted the development of mammary gland neoplasms. The prevalence and multiplicity of mammary gland carcinomas in all DMBA groups limited the ability of this assay to detect a promoting effect of magnetic fields.

In an initiation/promotion study in which female Sprague-Dawley rats were initiated by four weekly doses of 2 mg DMBA per rat beginning at 50 days of age and exposed to 50-Hz magnetic fields at 1 or 5 G field intensities for 13 weeks, there was no evidence that magnetic fields promoted the development of mammary gland neoplasms.

In an initiation/promotion study in which female Sprague-Dawley rats were initiated by a single 10 mg DMBA dose at 50 days of age and then exposed to 50-Hz magnetic fields at 1 or 5 G field intensities or to 1 G 60-Hz magnetic fields for 26 weeks, there was no evidence that magnetic fields promoted the development of mammary gland neoplasms.

 


 

Summary of the 13- and 26-Week 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) Initiation/Magnetic Field Promotion Studies in Female Sprague-Dawley Rats
  First 13-Week Study Second 13-Week Study 26-Week Study
Doses/Fields

20 mg DMBA control
20 mg DMBA/1 G 50 Hz
20 mg DMBA/5 G 50 Hz
20 mg DMBA/1 G 60 Hz

8 mg DMBA control
8 mg DMBA/1 G 50 Hz
8 mg DMBA/5 G 50 Hz

10 mg DMBA control
10 mg DMBA/1 G 50 Hz
10 mg DMBA/5 G 50 Hz
10 mg DMBA/1 G 60 Hz

Body weights

DMBA/1 G 50-Hz and DMBA/1 G 60-Hz groups greater than the DMBA control group

DMBA/magnetic field exposed groups similar to the DMBA control group

DMBA/1 G 50-Hz and DMBA/5 G 50-Hz groups greater than the DMBA control group

Survival rates

94/100, 87/100, 92/100, 95/100

100/100, 100/100, 99/100

88/100, 85/100, 91/100, 94/100

Mammary gland carcinoma

92/100, 86/100, 96/100, 96/100

43/100, 48/100, 38/100

96/100, 90/100, 95/100, 85/100

Mammary gland fibroadenoma

3/100, 2/100, 1/100, 1/100

None

71/100, 76/100, 73/100, 68/100

 

Evidence of promotional ability

No evidence

No evidence

No evidence


Report Date: August 1999

Pathology Tables, Survival and Growth Curves from NTP 2-year Studies

Target Organs and Incidences for 2-year Studies

 


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