National Toxicology Program

National Toxicology Program
https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/17633

Abstract for TR-534 - Divinylbenzene-HP (CASRN 1321-74-0)

ABSTRACT

Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Divinylbenzene-HP (CAS No. 1321-74-0) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Inhalation Studies)

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Chemical Formula: C10H10 Molecular Weight: 130.189

Divinylbenzene-HP is used for producing vinyl polymers. Divinylbenzene-HP was nominated for study by the National Cancer Institute because of the potential for worker exposure and the structural similarity of divinylbenzene to styrene, a potential human carcinogen. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to divinylbenzene-HP (80%) by inhalation for 2 weeks, 3 months, or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes.

2-WEEK STUDY IN RATS

Groups of five male and five female rats were exposed by whole body inhalation to divinylbenzene-HP at target concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, or 400 ppm 6 hours plus T90 (12 minutes) per day, 5 days per week for 16 days. All rats survived to the end of the study. Significant decreases in mean body weights occurred in both male and female rats in the 400 ppm groups. Relative kidney weights of 50 ppm or greater males and relative liver weights of 200 and 400 ppm males were significantly greater than those of the chamber controls. A clear serous nasal/eye discharge was observed in groups of males exposed to 100 ppm or greater and females exposed to 50 ppm or greater. Minimal or mild rhinitis occurred in 400 ppm rats of both sexes.

2-WEEK STUDY IN MICE

Groups of five male and five female mice were exposed by whole body inhalation to divinylbenzene-HP at target concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, or 400 ppm for 6 hours plus T90 (12 minutes) per day, 5 days per week for 17 days. All 400 ppm males and females died on or before the second day of the study, and two male and two female 200 ppm mice died early. Mean body weights of 100 and 200 ppm males were significantly less than those of the chamber controls. Thymus weights of exposed groups of males were significantly less than those of the chamber controls, and relative liver weights of 100 and 200 ppm males were significantly increased. Kidney and liver weights of exposed groups of females were significantly greater than those of the chamber controls. Mice exposed to 200 and 400 ppm had liver lesions including degeneration, necrosis, hemorrhage or cytomegaly. Renal tubule necrosis and regeneration occurred at 200 ppm. Necrosis or metaplasia of nasal epithelium and glands occurred in the nose in all exposure groups.

3-MONTH STUDY IN RATS

Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were exposed to divinylbenzene-HP at concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, or 400 ppm for 6 hours plus T90 (12 minutes) per day, 5 days per week for 14 weeks. All rats survived to the end of the study. There were no biologically significant changes in body weight in either sex. Nasal/eye discharge was noted in 400 ppm males and 100 ppm females. Kidney and liver weights of exposed groups of males and of 400 ppm females were generally greater than those of the chamber controls. In addition, the relative weights of the heart and testis were significantly increased in 200 and 400 ppm males. Incidences of degeneration of the olfactory epithelium in 200 and 400 ppm rats and basal cell hyperplasia of the olfactory epithelium in rats exposed to 100 ppm or greater were significantly increased.

3-MONTH STUDY IN MICE

Groups of 10 male and 10 female mice were exposed to divinylbenzene-HP at concentrations of 0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, or 200 ppm for 6 hours plus T90 (12 minutes) per day, 5 days per week for 14 weeks. All 200 ppm males and nine 200 ppm females died early. Final mean body weights were significantly lower in males and females exposed to 25, 50, or 100 ppm when compared with chamber controls. Lethargy or hypoactivity was observed in the higher exposure concentration groups. Exposure to divinylbenzene was associated with necrosis of the liver and kidney in 200 ppm males and females dying early. In all exposed groups of male and female mice, there was necrosis of nasal cavity lateral walls, olfactory epithelium, and glands with resultant atrophy of olfactory epithelium and glands in females. A lower number of animals had necrotic or degenerative changes of the upper respiratory tract.

2-YEAR STUDY IN RATS

Groups of 50 male and 50 female rats were exposed to divinylbenzene-HP at concentrations of 0, 100, 200, or 400 ppm for 6 hours plus T90 (12 minutes) per day, 5 days per week for up to 105 weeks. Survival of 400 ppm females was significantly less than that of the chamber control group. Survival of all exposed groups of males was similar to that of the chamber control group. Mean body weights of 400 ppm males and females were significantly less than those of the controls during the second half of the study.

Renal tubule carcinomas occurred in two of 50 males exposed to 400 ppm in the original kidney sections, an incidence that exceeded the historical control range. In 400 ppm males, the incidence of renal tubule hyperplasia was increased, and the incidence of nephropathy was significantly increased. Following combined analysis of single and step-section data, the incidences of renal tubule adenoma and adenoma or carcinoma (combined) were marginally higher in 200 and 400 ppm males, and the incidence of renal tubule hyperplasia was significantly increased in 400 ppm males. The incidences of malignant glial cell tumors (malignant astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma) in the brain were slightly increased in 100 and 200 ppm males, and the incidence in the 200 ppm group exceeded the historical range for chamber controls. There were increased incidences of degenerative and regenerative changes in the olfactory epithelium in the nose of all exposed groups of rats. The incidence of focal chronic inflammation in the lung of 400 ppm males was significantly greater than in the chamber control group.

2-YEAR STUDY IN MICE

Groups of 50 male and 50 female mice were exposed to divinylbenzene-HP at concentrations of 0, 10, 30, or 100 ppm for 6 hours plus T90 (12 minutes) per day, 5 days per week for up to 105 weeks. Survival of all exposed groups of male and female mice was similar to that of the chamber controls. Mean body weights were lower relative to chamber controls in 100 ppm males and in 30 and 100 ppm females.

The incidences of alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma and alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma or carcinoma (combined) in 100 ppm males were greater than chamber control incidences, but the incidences of adenoma or carcinoma (combined) were within the historical control range. The incidences of alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma and alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma or carcinoma (combined) in all exposed groups of females were generally greater than those of the chamber controls; the incidences were at the upper end or exceeded the historical control ranges. There was a greater incidence and severity of alveolar epithelial hyperplasia in 100 ppm females and a greater severity of this lesion in 30 ppm females, when compared to chamber controls. The incidences and/or severities of atypical bronchiole hyperplasia were significantly increased in all exposed groups of mice. Nonneoplastic nasal lesions occurred in most exposed mice.

GENETIC TOXICOLOGY

Divinylbenzene-HP was not mutagenic in any of three independent gene mutation assays using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97, TA98, TA100, TA1535, or TA1537 or Escherichia coli tester strain WP2 uvrA with or without induced hamster or rat liver enzymes. No increases in the frequencies of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes or alterations in the percentages of polychromatic erythrocytes were seen in peripheral blood of male or female B6C3F1 mice exposed to divinylbenzene-HP by inhalation for 3 months.

CONCLUSIONS

Under the conditions of this 2-year inhalation study, there was equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity of divinylbenzene-HP in male F344/N rats based upon the occurrence of carcinomas in the kidney and glial tumors in the brain. There was no evidence of carcinogenic activity in female F344/N rats exposed to 100, 200, or 400 ppm divinylbenzene-HP. There was no evidence of carcinogenic activity in male B6C3F1 mice exposed to 10, 30, or 100 ppm divinylbenzene-HP. There was equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity of divinylbenzene-HP in female B6C3F1 mice based on the incidences of alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma or carcinoma (combined) in the lung.

Exposure to divinylbenzene-HP caused nonneoplastic lesions of the nasal cavity in male and female rats and of the lung and nasal cavity in male and female mice.

Synonyms: Benzene, diethenyl-(9CI); diethenylbenzene; divinyl benzene; divinylbenzene-HP (high purity); divinylbenzene (m- and p-mixture); divinylbenzene (m-, p-mixture); divinyl benzene, mixed isomers; DVB; DVB-HP; m- (or p-) divinylbenzene; vinylstyrene


Summary of the 2-Year Carcinogenesis Studies of Divinylbenzene-HP

 


 
Male
F344/N Rats
Female
F344/N Rats
Male
B6C3F1 Mice
Female
B6C3F1 Mice
Concentrations in
air
Chamber control, 100, 200, or 400 ppm Chamber control, 100, 200, or 400 ppm Chamber control, 10, 30, or 100 ppm Chamber control, 10, 30, or 100 ppm
Body weights 400 ppm group less than chamber control group 400 ppm group less than chamber control group 100 ppm group less than chamber control group 30 and 100 ppm groups less than chamber control group
Survival rates 31/50, 35/50, 32/50, 32/50 33/50, 30/50, 33/50, 22/50 41/50, 38/50, 42/50, 43/50 33/50, 35/50, 38/50, 42/50
Nonneoplastic effects

Nose: olfactory epithelium, degeneration (0/50, 47/48, 49/50, 49/49); olfactory epithelium, hyperplasia, basal cell (0/50, 21/48, 44/50, 48/49); glands, dilatation (3/50, 30/48, 48/50, 46/49); goblet cell, hyperplasia (1/50, 3/48, 7/50, 16/49)

Nose: olfactory epithelium, degeneration (0/50, 50/50, 49/49, 48/49); olfactory epithelium, hyperplasia, basal cell (0/50, 25/50, 42/49, 45/49)

Lung: bronchiole, hyperplasia, atypical (0/49, 38/49, 46/49, 46/49); alveolar epithelium, hyperplasia (0/49, 5/49, 5/49, 7/49)

Nose: inflammation, suppurative (3/50, 47/50, 49/49, 49/50); glands, respiratory epithelium, metaplasia (12/50, 50/50, 49/49, 50/50); olfactory epithelium, respiratory epithelium, metaplasia (1/50, 50/50, 49/49, 50/50); olfactory epithelium, degeneration, hyaline (5/50, 50/50, 48/49, 11/50)

Lung: bronchiole, hyperplasia, atypical (0/50, 39/50, 45/50, 48/49); alveolar epithelium, hyperplasia (45/50, 3/50, 4/50, 8/49)

Nose: inflammation, suppurative (1/50, 50/50, 49/50, 49/49); glands, respiratory epithelium, metaplasia (3/50, 50/50, 50/50, 49/49); olfactory epithelium, respiratory epithelium, metaplasia (0/50, 50/50, 50/50, 49/49); olfactory epithelium, degeneration, hyaline (2/50, 50/50, 40/50, 8/49)

Neoplastic effects None None None None
Equivocal findings

Kidney: renal tubule carcinoma (standard evaluation - 0/50, 0/49, 0/50, 2/49); renal tubule adenoma or carcinoma (combined) (standard and extended evaluations - 0/50, 0/49, 2/50, 3/49)

Brain: oligodendroglioma or astrocytoma (0/49, 1/50, 3/50, 0/50)

None None

Lung: alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma or carcinoma (6/50, 12/50, 8/50, 13/49)

Level of evidence of carcinogenic activity Equivocal evidence No evidence No evidence Equivocal evidence
Genetic Toxicology of Divinylbenzene-HP
Assay Test System Results
Bacterial Mutagenicity Salmonella typhimurium gene mutations: Negative in strains TA97, TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537 and Escherichia coli WPM uvrA with and without S
Micronucleated erythrocytes Mouse peripheral blood in vivo: Negative in both males and females

Report Date: November 2006

Pathology Tables, Survival and Growth Curves from NTP 2-year Studies

Target Organs & Incidences from 2-year Studies

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