National Toxicology Program

National Toxicology Program
https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/34791

Abstract for TR-536 - bis(2-Chloroethoxy)methane (CASRN 111-91-1)

Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of bis(2-Chloroethoxy)methane (CAS No. 111-91-1) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Dermal Studies)

Link to the full study report  in PDF. If you have difficulty accessing the document, please send email to the NTP Webmaster [ Send Email ] and identify documents/pages for which access is required.

Abstract 

Bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane is used as a solvent and the starting agent in the production of fungicides and polysulfide polymers. Bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane was nominated for study by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences because of its widespread use as a starting material to produce polysulfide elastomers, and because there were no 2-year carcinogenicity studies reported in the literature. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice received dermal applications of bis(2-chloroethoxy)-methane in ethanol (greater than 98% pure) for 2 weeks, 3 months, or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, rat bone marrow cells, and mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes.

2-WEEK STUDY IN RATS

Groups of five male and five female rats were dermally administered 0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, or 200 mg bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane/kg body weight in ethanol, 5 days per week for 16 days. All rats survived to the end of the study. Mean body weights of dosed rats were similar to those of the vehicle control groups. There were no histopathologic lesions related to bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane administration.

2-WEEK STUDY IN MICE

Groups of five male and five female mice were dermally administered 0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, or 200 mg bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane/kg body weight in ethanol, 5 days per week for 17 days. All mice survived to the end of the study. Mean body weights of dosed mice were similar to those of the vehicle control groups. There were no histopathologic lesions related to bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane administration.

3-MONTH STUDY IN RATS

Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were dermally administered 0, 50, 100, 200, 400, or 600 mg bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane/kg body weight in ethanol, 5 days per week for 14 weeks. Additional clinical pathology groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were administered the same doses for 23 days. All core study 600 mg/kg males and females and two 400 mg/kg females died before the end of the study. The cause of death was considered to be related to the cardiotoxic effect of bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane. There were no significant differences between final mean body weights of dosed rats and those of the vehicle control groups; the mean body weight gain of 400 mg/kg males was significantly less than that of the vehicle controls. Clinical findings included prostration and ataxia in 600 mg/kg rats during the first week of the study and nasal/eye discharge, lethargy, ataxia, and abnormal breathing in 400 and 600 mg/kg females beginning week 5. An enlarged heart was noted in one 100 mg/kg female rat. Relative kidney weights of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg males were significantly greater than that of the vehicle control group. Increased incidences and severities of myofiber cytoplasmic vacuolization and interstitial mononuclear cell infiltration in the heart occurred in 400 and 600 mg/kg male and female rats and in 200 mg/kg females. Increased incidences and severities of myofiber necrosis occurred in 600 mg/kg males and females; one female each in the 200 and 400 mg/kg groups also had this lesion. Three 600 mg/kg males had atrial thrombosis.

3-MONTH STUDY IN MICE

Groups of 10 male and 10 female mice were dermally administered 0, 50, 100, 200, 400, or 600 mg bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane/kg body weight in ethanol, 5 days per week for 14 weeks. Except for three 600 mg/kg females, all mice survived to the end of the study. Mean body weights of dosed and vehicle control mice were similar. One 600 mg/kg female that died early exhibited lethargy, abnormal breathing, and tremors, and one animal had clonic seizures. One 600 mg/kg female that died early had focal erosion of the glandular stomach and a focus in the duodenum found to consist of acute suppurative inflammation and thrombosis. Absolute and relative kidney weights of 400 and 600 mg/kg males and 600 mg/kg females were significantly greater than those of the vehicle control groups. Absolute liver weights of 400 and 600 mg/kg females were also significantly increased. Significantly increased incidences of myofiber cytoplasmic vacuolization occurred in 400 and 600 mg/kg females.

2-YEAR STUDY IN RATS

Groups of 50 male and 50 female rats were dermally administered 0, 75, 150, or 300 mg bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane/kg body weight in ethanol, 5 days per week for 105 weeks. Survival of all dosed groups of rats was generally similar to that of the vehicle controls. Mean body weights of dosed rats were similar to those of the vehicle controls throughout the study. Clinical findings in 300 mg/kg females that died during the first year of the study included abnormal breathing, lethargy, thinness, nasal discharge, and ataxia.

Significantly increased incidences of degeneration of the olfactory epithelium in the nose occurred in all dosed groups of males and in 150 and 300 mg/kg females. The incidences of inflammation of the forestomach were significantly increased in 150 and 300 mg/kg males, and the incidence of ulcers was significantly increased in 300 mg/kg males. Increased incidences of cystic degeneration of the liver occurred in 150 and 300 mg/kg male rats; the incidence was significantly increased in the 300 mg/kg group.

2-YEAR STUDY IN MICE

Groups of 50 male mice were dermally administered 0, 150, 300, or 600 mg bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane/kg body weight in ethanol, 5 days per week for 105 weeks. Groups of 50 female mice were dermally administered 0, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg in ethanol, 5 days per week for 104 weeks. Survival of 600 mg/kg male mice was significantly less than that of the vehicle control group. Mean body weights of dosed mice were generally similar to those of the vehicle controls throughout the study. Clinical findings observed in 600 mg/kg male mice that died during the first year of the study included lethargy and thinness.

Myocardial heart changes were recorded according to the characteristic lesions of cardiomyopathy syndrome (necrosis, mononuclear cell infiltration, myocardial cell vacuolization, and interstitial fibrosis) separately, and in addition, where appropriate, they were also categorized as cardiomyopathy. Increased incidences of cardiomyopathy and mononuclear cell infiltration occurred in 600 mg/kg males and 400 mg/kg females; the incidences were significantly increased in 600 mg/kg males compared to the vehicle controls. Significantly increased incidences of cardiomyocyte vacuolization and interstitial fibrosis occurred in 600 mg/kg males. A few early deaths in the 600 mg/kg males were considered to be due, at least in part and probably exclusively, to bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane-induced cardiotoxicity.

The incidence of ulceration of the forestomach was significantly increased in 600 mg/kg males.

Significantly increased incidences of dermal inflammation and fibrosis and epidermal hyperplasia at the site of application occurred in 600 mg/kg male mice.

GENETIC TOXICOLOGY

Bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane was mutagenic in S. typhimurium strains TA100 and TA1535 in the presence of exogenous metabolic activation enzymes (S9) in one study; results from a second bacterial mutagenicity test were judged to be equivocal based on responses observed in TA100 and in E. coli strain WP2 uvrA/pKM101 in the presence of S9. No mutagenicity was observed in other tester strains or in the absence of S9. Bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane did not increase the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes in bone marrow of male F344/N rats following three daily treatments by gavage or micronucleated erythrocytes in peripheral blood of male or female mice after 3 months of dermal exposure.

CONCLUSIONS

Under the conditions of these 2-year dermal studies, there was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane in male or female F344/N rats administered 75, 150, or 300 mg/kg. There was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane in male B6C3F1 mice administered 150, 300, or 600 mg/kg or in female B6C3F1 mice administered 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg.

The administration of bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane for 2 years resulted in increased incidences of nonneoplastic lesions in the nose of male and female rats, the forestomach of male rats, the heart of male and female mice, and the forestomach and skin of male mice.

Synonyms: Bis(2-chloroethyl)formal; bis(β;-chloroethyl)formal; dichlorodiethyl formal; dichlorodiethyl methylal; di(2-chloroethyl) acetal; dichloroethyl formal; 2,2-dichloroethyl formal; dichloromethoxy ethane; ethane, 1,1-[methylenebis(oxy)]bis(2-chloro)-; formaldehyde bis(2-chloroethyl) acetal; formaldehyde bis(β;-chloroethyl) acetal; methane, bis(2-chloroethoxy)-; 1,1-[methylenebis(oxy)]bis(2-chloroethane)
 


Summary of the 2-Year Carcinogenesis Studies of Bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane
  Male
F344/N Rats
Female
F344/N Rats
Male
B6C3F1 Mice
Female
B6C3F1 Mice
Doses in ethanol by dermal application 0, 75, 150, or 300 mg/kg 0, 75, 150, or 300 mg/kg 0, 150, 300, or 600 mg/kg 0, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg
Body weights Dosed groups similar to the vehicle control group Dosed groups similar to the vehicle control group Dosed groups similar to the vehicle control group Dosed groups similar to the vehicle control group
Survival rates 21/50, 29/50, 14/50, 24/50 19/50, 30/50, 28/50, 18/50 37/50, 40/50, 42/50, 28/50 31/50, 38/50, 37/50, 37/50
Nonneoplastic effects Nose: olfactory epithelium, degeneration (5/50, 17/49, 30/50, 48/49)
Forestomach: inflammation (0/50, 2/50, 6/50, 10/50); ulcer (0/50, 2/50, 2/50, 7/50)
Nose: olfactory epithelium, degeneration (5/49, 4/49, 18/50, 49/49) Heart: Heart: cardiomyopathy (10/50, 12/50, 7/50, 28/50); myocardium, fibrosis (0/50, 3/50, 3/50, 13/50); myocardium, infiltration cellular, mononuclear cell (11/50, 12/50, 8/50, 28/50); myocardium, vacuolization cytoplasmic (10/50, 15/50, 11/50, 29/50)
Forestomach: ulcer (1/50, 1/50, 1/50, 7/50)
Skin (site of application): dermis, fibrosis (6/50, 1/50, 2/50, 25/50); dermis, inflammation (3/50, 1/50, 3/50, 13/50); epidermis, hyperplasia (8/50, 1/50, 4/50, 28/50)
Heart: myocardium cardiomyopathy (10/50, 7/50, 10/50, 17/50); myocardium, infiltration cellular, mononuclear cell (9/50, 7/50, 10/50, 17,50); myocardium, vacuolization cytoplasmic (14/50, 4/50, 6/50, 13/50)
Neoplastic effects None None None None
Level of evidence of carcinogenic activity No Evidence No Evidence No Evidence No Evidence
Genetic Toxicology of Bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane
Assay Test System Results
Bacterial Mutagenicity Bacterial gene mutations: Positive in one study in S. typhimurium strains TA100 and TA1535 with S9; equivocal in a second study in TA100 and in E. coli with S9; negative in TA100, TA1535, and E. coli without S9 and TA98 with or without S9
Micronucleated erythrocytes Rat bone marrow in vivo: Negative in male rats
Micronucleated erythrocytes Mouse peripheral blood in vivo: Negative in male and female mice

Date: August 2011

Pathology Tables, Survival and Growth Curves from NTP 2-year Studies

Target Organs & Incidences from 2-year Studies
NTP is located at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, part of the National Institutes of Health.