Skip to Main Navigation
Skip to Page Content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

The .gov means it’s official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.

Https

The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Share This:
https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/740096

Target Organs and Levels of Evidence for TR-581

Toxicology Studies of Cobalt Metal (CASRN 7440-48-4) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1/N Mice and Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Cobalt Metal in F344/NTac Rats and B6C3F1/N Mice (Inhalation Studies)

Chemical
CASRN
(Study Title)
Peer Review Date Primary Uses Route/Exposure Levels Study Laboratory
Cobalt
7440-48-4
10/29/2013 Nuclear medicine and research, industry, paints, water treatment, metallurgy (HSDB 1990). Associated with tobacco: reported either as a natural component of tobacco, pyrolysis product (in tobacco smoke), or additive for one or more types of tobacco products. Inhalation
R&M: 0, 1.25, 2.5, or 5 mg/m3; 50/sex/species/dose
Battelle Northwest Laboratory

Levels of Evidence

Male Rats: Clear Evidence
Type Organ/Tissue (Lesion)
Neoplastic Lesions
  • Lung: alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma 2/50 10/50 10/50 14/50 alveolar/bronchiolar carcinoma 0/50 16/50 34/50 36/50 alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma or carcinoma 2/50 25/50 39/50 44/50
  • Adrenal Gland Medulla: benign pheochromocytoma 15/50 23/50 37/50 34/50 malignant pheochromocytoma 2/50 2/50 9/50 16/50 benign or malignant pheochromocytoma 17/50 23/50 38/50 41/50
  • Pancreas Islet Cell: adenoma or carcinoma 2/50 2/50 10/48 9/49
May Have Been Related
  • Lung: cystic keratinizing epithelioma 0/50 1/50 0/50 1/50
  • Kidney: adenoma or carcinoma (standard evaluation) 0/50 1/50 0/50 4/50 (standard and extended evaluations combined) 3/50 1/50 1/50 7/50
Non-Neoplastic Lesions
  • Lung: alveolar epithelium, hyperplasia; alveolus, proteinosis; inflammation, chronic active; bronchiole, epithelium, hyperplasia
  • Nasal Cavty: inflammation, chronic active; inflammation, suppurative; olfactory epithelium, metaplasia, respiratory; olfactory epithelium, atrophy; olfactory epithelium, hyperplasia; olfactory epithelium, hyperplasia, basal cell; olfactory epithelium, necrosis; respiratory epithelium, hyperplasia; respiratory epithelium, metaplasia, squamous; respiratory epithelium, necrosis; turbinate, atrophy
  • Testes: infarct
Female Rats: Clear Evidence
Type Organ/Tissue (Lesion)
Neoplastic Lesions
  • Lung: alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma 2/50 7/50 9/50 13/50 alveolar/bronchiolar carcinoma 0/50 9/50 17/50 30/50 alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma or carcinoma 2/50 15/50 20/50 38/50 cystic keratinizing epithelioma 0/50 4/50 1/50 2/50
  • Adrenal Gland Medulla: benign pheochromocytoma 6/50 12/50 22/50 36/50 malignant pheochromocytoma 0/50 2/50 3/50 11/50 benign or malignant pheochromocytoma 6/50 13/50 23/50 40/50
  • Mononuclear Cell Leukemia: 16/50 29/50 28/50 27/50
May Have Been Related
  • Pancreas Islet Cell: carcinoma 1/50 0/50 0/50 3/50
Non-Neoplastic Lesions
  • Lung: alveolar epithelium, hyperplasia; alveolus, proteinosis; inflammation, chronic active; bronchiole, epithelium, hyperplasia
  • Nose: inflammation, chronic active; inflammation, suppurative; olfactory epithelium, metaplasia, respiratory; olfactory epithelium, atrophy; olfactory epithelium, hyperplasia; olfactory epithelium, hyperplasia, basal cell; respiratory epithelium, hyperplasia; respiratory epithelium, metaplasia, squamous; respiratory epithelium, necrosis; turbinate, atrophy
  • Adrenal medulla: hyperplasia
Male Mice: Clear Evidence
Type Organ/Tissue (Lesion)
Neoplastic Lesions
  • Lung: alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma 7/50 11/49 15/50 3/50 alveolar/bronchiolar carcinoma 11/50 38/49 42/50 46/50 alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma or carcinoma 16/50 41/49 43/50 47/50
Non-Neoplastic Lesions
  • Lung: alveolar/bronchiolar epithelium, hyperplasia; alveolar/bronchiolar epithelium, vacuolization cytoplasmic; alveolar epithelium, hyperplasia; bronchiole, epithelium, hyperplasia; bronchiole, epithelium, erosion; proteinosis; alveolus, infiltration cellular, histiocyte; inflammation, suppurative
  • Nasal Cavity: inflammation, suppurative; olfactory epithelium, atrophy; olfactory epithelium, hyperplasia; olfactory epithelium, metaplasia, respiratory; olfactory epithelium, respiratory metaplasia, atypical; respiratory epithelium, accumulation, hyaline droplet; respiratory epithelium, vacuolization cytoplasmic; respiratory epithelium, metaplasia, squamous; turbinate, atrophy
  • Larynx: respiratory epithelium, metaplasia, squamous; respiratory epithelium, vacuolization cytoplasmic; squamous epithelium, hyperplasia
  • Trachea: epithelium, vacuolization cytoplasmic
  • Testes: germinal epithelium, degeneration
Female Mice: Clear Evidence
Type Organ/Tissue (Lesion)
May Have Been Related
  • Lung: alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma 3/49 9/50 8/50 10/50 alveolar/bronchiolar carcinoma 5/49 25/50 38/50 43/50 alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma or carcinoma 8/49 30/50 41/50 45/50
Non-Neoplastic Lesions
  • Lung: alveolar/bronchiolar epithelium, hyperplasia; alveolar/bronchiolar epithelium, vacuolization cytoplasmic; alveolar epithelium, hyperplasia; bronchiole, epithelium, hyperplasia; proteinosis; alveolus, infiltration cellular, histiocyte; inflammation, suppurative
  • Nasal Cavity: inflammation, suppurative; olfactory epithelium, atrophy; olfactory epithelium, hyperplasia; olfactory epithelium, metaplasia, respiratory; olfactory epithelium, respiratory metaplasia, atypical; respiratory epithelium, accumulation, hyaline droplet; respiratory epithelium, vacuolization cytoplasmic; respiratory epithelium, metaplasia, squamous; turbinate, atrophy
  • Larynx: respiratory epithelium, metaplasia, squamous; respiratory epithelium, vacuolization cytoplasmic; squamous epithelium, hyperplasia
  • Trachea: epithelium, vacuolization cytoplasmic