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Target Organs and Levels of Evidence for GMM-12

Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Study of Phenolphthalein (CASRN 77-09-8) in Genetically Modified Haploinsufficient p16Ink4a/p19Arf Mice (Feed Study)

Chemical (Study Title)
Peer Review Date Primary Uses Route/Exposure Levels Study Laboratory
Transgenic model evaluation II (Phenolphthalein)
08/28/2006 Transgenic mouse evaluation of phenolphthalein using the p16INKa(+/-) mouse model. Phenolphthalein is used as a laboratory reagent; in dyes; as a cathartic drug in laxatives. Phenolphthalein was commonly used as a laxative for most of the 20th century. Dosed-Feed
0, 200, 375, 750, 3000, or 12000 ppm
Battelle Columbus Laboratory

Levels of evidence information for Carcinogenesis and Genetic Toxicology Studies of Phenolphthalein in Haploinsufficient P16(Ink4a)/(+/-) (C57BL/6) Mice
  Male P16(Ink4a)/(+/-) (C57BL/6) Mice Female P16(Ink4a)/(+/-) (C57BL/6) Mice
  27 Weeks 27 Weeks
Levels of Evidence No Evidence No Evidence
Neoplastic Lesions None None
Non-Neoplastic Lesions
  • Thymus: atypical hyperplasia
  • Testes: germinal epithelium atrophy; interstitial cell hyperplasia
  • Epididymis: hypospermia
  • Kidney: nephropathy; renal tubule hypertrophy
  • Spleen: hematopoietic cell proliferation
  • Thymus: atypical hyperplasia
  • Spleen: hematopoietic cell proliferation