National Toxicology Program

National Toxicology Program
http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/ts-10242-j

Testing Status of Acetonitrile - 10242-J

 

CASRN: 75-05-8

Formula: C2-H3-N

Synonyms/Common Names

  • Methyl cyanide

Known Uses

Solvent in hydrocarbon extraction processes. Specialty solvent. Chemical intermediate. Separation of fatty acids from vegetable oils. Pharmaceuticals. Associated with tobacco: reported either as a natural component of tobacco, pyrolysis product (in tobacco smoke), or additive for one or more types of tobacco products.

Chemical Properties

Toxicity Effects (HSDB)

Short-Term Toxicity

  • 14-Day (Inhalation)  (C60822A)  Completed 
    • Rats: F344/N; Mice: B6C3F1
  • 13-Week (Inhalation)  (C60822A)  Completed 
    • Rats: F344/N; Mice: B6C3F1
  • 13 weeks (Inhalation)  (C60822B)  Completed 
    • Rats: F344/N; Mice: B6C3F1
    • Dose: R&M: 0, 100, 200, 400, 800, OR 1600 PPM (10/S/S).

Long-Term Carcinogenicity

  • 2 years (Inhalation)  (C60822B)  Report Complete 
    • TR-447 (NIH Number: 96-3363)  (Peer Review Approval 06/21/1994A )
      Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Acetonitrile (CASRN 75-05-8) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Inhalation Studies)
    • Rats: F344/N; Mice: B6C3F1
    • Carcinogenesis Results
      • Male Rats Equivocal Evidence 
      • Female Rats No Evidence 
      • Male Mice No Evidence 
      • Female Mice No Evidence 
    • Dose: R: 0, 100, 200, OR 400 PPM M: 0, 50, 100, OR 200 PPM ; 50/GROUP.

Special Studies

  • Mechanisms  (S0499)  Completed 
    • Citation: Ahmed AE, Loh JP, Ghanayem B, Hussein GI. Studies on the mechanism of acetonitrile toxicity. I: Whole body autoradiographic distribution and macromolecular interaction of 2-14C-acetonitrile in mice. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1992 May;70(5 Pt 1):322-30.Pubmed Abstract
    • Male Mice

Genetic Toxicology

  • In Vitro Cytogenetics (CA/SCE)  (119279)  Completed 
    • Citation: Galloway, S., Armstrong, M., Reuben, C., Colman, S., Brown, B., Cannon, C., Bloom, A., Nakamura, F., Ahmed, M., Duk, S., Rimpo, J., Margolin, B., Resnick, M., Anderson, B., and Zeiger, E. Chromosome aberration and sister chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster ovary cells: Evaluations of 108 chemicals. Environ. Molec. Mutagen. Vol. 10 (Suppl 10) (1987) 1-176
    • Sister Chromatid Exchange Weakly Positive 
    • Chromosome Aberrations Equivocal 
  • Micronucleus  (A41659)  Completed 
    • Citation: Witt, K.L., Knapton, A., Wehr, C.M., Hook, G.J., Mirsalis, J., Shelby, M.D., and MacGregor, J.T. Micronucleated Erythrocyte Frequency in Peripheral Blood of B6C3F1 Mice from Short-Term, Prechronic, and Chronic Studies of the NTP Carcinogenesis Bioassay Program. Environ. Molec. Mutagen. Vol. 36 (2000) 163-194
    • Mice: B6C3F1
    • Male Positive 
    • Female Negative 
  • Salmonella  (571879)  Completed 
    • Citation: Mortelmans, K., Haworth, S., Lawlor, T., Speck, W., Tainer, B., and Zeiger, E. Salmonella mutagenicity tests. II. Results from the testing of 270 chemicals Environ. Mutagen. Vol. 8 (Suppl 7) (1986) 1-119
    •  Negative 
  • Salmonella  (831005)  Completed 
    • Citation: Mortelmans, K., Haworth, S., Lawlor, T., Speck, W., Tainer, B., and Zeiger, E. Salmonella mutagenicity tests. II. Results from the testing of 270 chemicals Environ. Mutagen. Vol. 8 (Suppl 7) (1986) 1-119
    •  Negative 

Organ Systems Toxicity

  • Conventional Teratology (Inhalation)  (TER91039)  Completed 
    • Citation: Inhalation Developmental Toxicology Studies: Acetonitrile in Rats (February 1994)
    • Female Rats: Sprague Dawley
    • Rats Maternal Inadequate 
    • Rats Fetal Negative 
NTP is located at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, part of the National Institutes of Health.