Testing Status of 2,3-Butanedione M940009


CASRN: 431-03-8

Formula: C4-H6-O2

Synonyms/Common Names

  • Biacetyl
  • 2,3-Butadione
  • 2,3-Diketobutane
  • Dimethyl diketone
  • Dimethyl glyoxal
  • Dimethylglyoxal
  • Dioxobutane

Known Uses

Flavorant. Associated with tobacco: reported either as a natural component of tobacco, pyrolysis product (in tobacco smoke), or additive for one or more types of tobacco products.

Chemical Properties

Toxicity Effects (HSDB)

Short-Term Toxicity

  • 90 days (Inhalation)  (C20725)  Report Draft 
    • Rats: Wistar Han; Mice: B6C3F1
    • Dose: 0, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, or 100; R: 20/sex/conc; M: 10/sex/conc.

Long-Term Carcinogenicity

  • 2 years (Inhalation)  (C20725)  Report Draft 
    • TR-593   (Peer Review Approval 07/13/2017A )
      Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of 2,3-Butanedione (CASRN 431-03-8) in Wistar Han [Crl:WI (Han)] Rats and B6C3F1/N Mice (Inhalation Studies)
    • Rats: Wistar Han; Mice: B6C3F1
    • Dose: 0, 12.5, 25, or 50 ppm; R&M: 50/sex/species/exp conc.

Special Studies

  • Absorption Disposition Metabolism Elimination (Intratracheal; Oropharyngeal)  (K94009)  Completed 
    • Citation: Amended Final Study Report Disposition of 2,3-Butanedione in Rats (Intratracheal Instillation) and Mice (Oropharyngeal Aspiration). January 16, 2013.
    • Citation: Timothy R. Fennell, Daniel L. Morgan, Scott L. Watson, Suraj Dhungana, Suramya Waidyanatha. Systemic uptake, albumin and hemoglobin binding of [14C]2,3-butanedione administered by intratracheal instillation in male Harlan Sprague Dawley rats and oropharyngeal aspiration in male B6C3F1/N mice. Chem Biol Interact. 2015 Feb 5;227:112-9. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2014.12.029. Epub 2015 Jan 2.Pubmed Abstract
    • Male Rats: Harlan Sprague-Dawley; Male Mice: B6C3F1
    • Dose: Mice, 200 mg/kg. Rats, 100 and 125 mg/kg.
  • Absorption Disposition Metabolism Elimination (Gavage)  (S0653)  Completed 
    • Male Rats: F344/N
    • Dose: 1.58 (low) 15.8 (mid), 158 (high) mg/kg.
  • Absorption Disposition Metabolism Elimination (in-vitro)  (S0900)  Completed 
    • Citation: Final Study Report Study of Butanedione (Arginine Adducts) Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion (ADME) Chemical Disposition in Mammals.
    • Citation: Mathews JM, Watson SL, Snyder RW, Burgess JP, Morgan DL. Reaction of the butter flavorant diacetyl (2,3-butanedione) with N-alpha-acetylarginine: a model for epitope formation with pulmonary proteins in the etiology of obliterative bronchiolitis. J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Dec 22;58(24):12761-8. doi: 10.1021/jf103251w. Epub 2010 Nov 15.Pubmed Abstract
    • Mice: AM3 (C57BL/6)

Genetic Toxicology

  • Micronucleus  (A44706)  Completed 
    • Mice: B6C3F1
    • Male Negative 
  • Micronucleus  (G94009B)  Completed 
    • Mice: B6C3F1
    • Male Negative 
    • Female Negative 
  • Micronucleus  (G94009)  Completed 
    • Rats: Wistar Han
    • Male Negative 
    • Female Negative 
  • Salmonella  (A04292)  Completed 
    •  Weakly Positive 
  • Salmonella  (G94009C)  On Test 

    Organ Systems Toxicity

    • varies Immunotoxicity (Topical Application)  (IMM20602)  Completed 
      • Female Mice: BALB/c
      • Dose: 0, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, or 25%.
    • 28 days Immunotoxicity (Inhalation)  (IMM20606)  Completed 
      • Female Mice: BALB/c
      • Dose: 0, 25, 50, or 100 ppm.