National Toxicology Program

National Toxicology Program

Testing Status of 5-(Hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural - M950006


CASRN: 67-47-0

Formula: C6-H6-O3

Synonyms/Common Names

  • HMF
  • 5-(Hydroxymethyl)-2-furancarboxaldehyde (9CI)
  • 5(Hydroxymethyl)furfural

Known Uses

A decomposition product of carbohydrates and is formed during cooking or heat sterilization of food. It has been identified in a wide variety of heat processed foods including milk, fruit juices, spirits, honey, etc. Associated with tobacco: reported either as a natural component of tobacco, pyrolysis product (in tobacco smoke), or additive for one or more types of tobacco products.

Chemical Properties

Toxicity Effects (HSDB)

Nomination Background

Short-Term Toxicity

  • 2 weeks (Gavage)  (C95011)  Completed 
    • Rats: F344/N; Mice: B6C3F1
    • Dose: R&M: 0, 94, 188, 375, 750, OR 1500 MG/KG.
  • 13 weeks (Gavage)  (C95011)  Completed 
    • Rats: F344/N; Mice: B6C3F1
    • Dose: R: 0, 94, 188, 375, 750 OR 1500 MG/KG; M: 0, 47, 94, 188, 375, OR 750 MG/KG.

Long-Term Carcinogenicity

  • 2 years (Gavage)  (C95011B)  Report Complete 
    • TR-554 (NIH Number: 10-5895)  (Peer Review Approval 02/27/2008A )
      Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of 5-(Hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural (CASRN 67-47-0) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Studies)
    • Rats: F344/N; Mice: B6C3F1/N
    • Carcinogenesis Results
      • Male Rats No Evidence 
      • Female Rats No Evidence 
      • Male Mice No Evidence 
      • Female Mice Some Evidence 
    • Dose: R&M: 0, 188, 375, OR 750 MG/KG; 50/SEX/SPECIES/DOSE.

Special Studies

  • Absorption Disposition Metabolism Elimination (Gavage)  (S0620)  Completed 
    • Citation: Godfrey VB, Chen LJ, Griffin RJ, Lebetkin EH, Burka LT. Distribution and metabolism of (5-hydroxymethyl)furfural in male F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice after oral administration. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 1999 Jun 11;57(3):199-210.Pubmed Abstract
    • Male and Female Rats: F344/N; Male and Female Mice: B6C3F1
    • Dose: 5, 100, 500 mg/kg.

Genetic Toxicology

  • Micronucleus  (A40470)  Completed 
    • Mice: B6C3F1
    • Male Negative 
    • Female Negative 
  • Salmonella  (A22124)  Completed 
    •  Weakly Positive 
  • Salmonella  (A43477)  Completed 
    •  Negative 
NTP is located at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, part of the National Institutes of Health.