The primary objective of a toxicogenomic study is to evaluate the role of the genome (and its related entities, e.g. the proteome and metabolome) in the manifestation of xenobiotic-induced toxicity and disease. Biological samples may be from in vitro or in vivo studies. Toxicogenomic studies evaluate a wide range of molecular endpoints including (but not limited to) the transcriptome (e.g. microarray, RNA-seq, RT-PCR, nanobead arrays, RNAi, SAGE analysis), proteome (e.g. MS based proteomics, antigen profiling, cytokine arrays), metabolome (e.g. GC-MS, LC-MS, NMR), epigenome (e.g. ChIP-chip, bisulfate sequencing) and genome (e.g. SNP microarrays, CGH microarrays, next generation sequencing).