Acronyms and Abbreviations

3Rs: principles of replacement, reduction, or refinement of animal use for scientific research or product safety testing

ADME: absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion

AOP: adverse outcome pathway

API: application programming interface

ATSDRAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

AWICAnimal Welfare Information Center (U.S. Department of Agriculture)

BraCVAMBrazilian Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods

CaCVAMCanadian Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods

CarciHEI: Carcinogenicity Health Effects Innovation Program (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences)

CATMoSCollaborative Acute Toxicity Modeling Suite

CDER: Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (U.S. Food and Drug Administration)

CPSCU.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission

DNT HEI: Developmental Neurotoxicity Health Effects Innovation Program (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences)

DNTP: Division of the National Toxicology Program (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; renamed "Division of Translational Toxicology" in September 2022)

DoDU.S. Department of Defense

DOEU.S. Department of Energy

DOIU.S. Department of the Interior

DOTU.S. Department of Transportation

dTPdevelopmental toxicity potential

ELISA: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

ENM: engineered nanomaterials

EPAU.S. Environmental Protection Agency

EURL ECVAMEuropean Union Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing

FAIR: findability, accessibility, interoperability, and reusability (of data)

FDAU.S. Food and Drug Administration

FXR: farnesoid X receptor

GHSUnited Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals

HTSHigh-throughput screening

httkHigh-throughput Toxicokinetics (software package, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)

IATA: integrated approach to testing and assessment

ICATMInternational Cooperation on Alternative Test Methods

ICCVAMInteragency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods

ICEIntegrated Chemical Environment (National Toxicology Program)

ICHInternational Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use

iPSC: induced pluripotent stem cell

IVIVE: in vitro to in vivo extrapolation

JaCVAM: Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods

KM: half-maximal concentration for metabolism

KoCVAMKorean Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods

LC50: in traditional acute inhalation or aquatic toxicity tests, the concentration that produces lethality in 50% of the animals tested

LD50: in traditional acute dermal or oral systemic toxicity tests, the dose that produces lethality in 50% of the animals tested

LEL: lowest effect level

LOAEL: lowest observable adverse effect level

MAT: monocyte activation tests

MPS: microphysiological systems

MPSCoRe: MPS for COVID Research working group

NAM: new approach methodology

NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration

nAChRs: nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

NC3Rs: National Centre for the Replacement Refinement & Reduction of Animals in Research (United Kingdom)

NCATSNational Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (National Institutes of Health)

NCINational Cancer Institute (National Institutes of Health)

NICEATMNational Toxicology Program Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods

NIEHSNational Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (National Institutes of Health)

NIHNational Institutes of Health

NIOSHNational Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

NISTNational Institute of Standards and Technology

NLMNational Library of Medicine (National Institutes of Health)

NTPNational Toxicology Program

OECDOrganisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

OPERAOpen (Quantitative) Structure-activity/property Relationship App

OSHAOccupational Safety and Health Administration

PAH: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

PBPK: physiologically based pharmacokinetic

PFAS: per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances

PHMSA: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (U.S. Department of Transportation)

PK: pharmacokinetic

POD: point of departure

QSAR: quantitative structure-activity relationship

RHDV2: rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 2

SACATMScientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods

SARA: Skin Allergy Risk Assessment model (Unilever)

SEAZITSystematic Evaluation of the Application of Zebrafish in Toxicology (National Toxicology Program)

SOTSociety of Toxicology

ToxCastToxicity Forecaster (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)

ToxRefDB: Toxicity Reference Database (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)

TSCAToxic Substances Control Act (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)

USDAU.S. Department of Agriculture

USGSU.S. Geological Survey (U.S. Department of the Interior)

Vmax: maximal capacity for metabolism