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https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/13769

D-Limonene: Target Organs and Levels of Evidence for TR-347

Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of d-Limonene (CASRN 5989-27-5) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Studies)

Chemical (Study Title)
CASRN
Peer Review DatePrimary UsesRoute/Exposure LevelsStudy Laboratory
D-Limonene
5989-27-5
04/18/1988Industrial solvent, flavor & fragrance additive obtained from citrus fruit. Associated with tobacco: reported either as a natural component of tobacco, pyrolysis product (in tobacco smoke), or additive for one or more types of tobacco products.Gavage
FR: 0,300,600, MR: 0,75,150, FM: 0,500,1000, MM: 0,250,500 MG/KG/50 PER GROUP
BioReliance, Inc

Levels of Evidence

Male Rats: Clear Evidence
TypeOrgan/Tissue (Lesion)
Neoplastic Lesions
  • Kidney Tubular Cell: ADENOMA 0/50 4/50 8/50 OR ADENOCARCINOMA 0/50 4/50 3/50
Non-Neoplastic Lesions
  • KIDNEY: PAPILLA, MINERALIZATION 7/50 43/50 48/50; HYPERPLASIA, TUBULAR CELL 0/50 4/50 7/50; HYPERPLASIA, EPITHELIAL 0/50 35/50 43/50; INCREASED SEVERITY OF NEPHROPATHY
Female Rats: No Evidence
Male Mice: No Evidence
Female Mice: No Evidence