Diallyl Phthalate was subsequently tested in F344 rats by gavage (See TR-284, reported 1985).
Diallyl phthalate is a widely used crosslinking agent for unsaturated polyesters. Diallyl phthalate or diallyl phthalate polyester blends are used primarily as plasticizers and carriers for adding catalysts and pigments to polyesters and in molding, electrical parts, laminating compounds, and impregnation of metal castings. Rubber compounds, epoxy formulations, and polyurethane foams may also contain diallyl phthalate. Annual production of diallyl phthalate in the United States exceeds 5,000 pounds; precise figures are not available.
A carcinogenesis bioassay of diallyl phthalate (99% pure) was conducted by administering 0 (vehicle control), 150, or 300 mg/kg diallyl phthalate in corn oil by gavage, 5 days per week for 103 weeks, to groups of 50 male and 50 female B6C3F1 mice. Survival rates and mean body weights of dosed mice were not different from those of the controls, and pathological lesions unrelated to proliferative changes were not observed. Therefore, a maximally tolerated dose for the purposes of carcinogenicity testing may not have been achieved.
The incidences of lymphoma and either lymphoma or leukemia in dosed male mice were no significantly greater than those in the controls according to pairwise comparisons (P=0.051 to P=0.096), but the trend tests were statistically significant by either life table or incidental tumor analysis (P=0.031 to P=0.045). The incidence of lymphomas in the high-dose male mice was 12/50 (24%) in comparison with 6/50 (12%) in the controls. Recent historical incidences at the performing laboratory and in the NTP Bioassay Program were 18/120 (15%) and 71/661 (11%), respectively. Since the incidence of high-dose male mice with leukemia was not significantly greater than that of concurrent or historical controls at the performing laboratory by pairwise comparisons, this marginal increase was considered only to be equivocally related to diallyl phthalate administration.
Increased incidences of squamous cell papillomas, hyperplasia, and inflammatory lesions of the forestomach were observed in diallyl phthalate-dosed mice of both sexes in a dose-related manner. Papillomas of the forestomach were observed in 0%, 2%, and 4% of the control, low-dose, and high-dose mice of both sexes. The recent historical incidence of this tumor in gavage control mice from both the performing laboratory and other laboratories within the Bioassay Program was less than 1%. Forestomach hyperplasia was diagnosed in 0%, 15%, and 18%, and in 8%, 2%, and 29% of the control, low-dose, and high-dose male and female mice, respectively; chronic inflammation of the forestomach was diagnosed in 0%, 9%, and 16% and in 4%, 2%, and 18% of the control, low-dose, and high-dose male and female mice, respectively. Because of the numerical elevation of the forestomach papillomas in the high-dose mice of both sexes, the concomitant observation of dose related forestomach hyperplasia, and the rarity of this tumor in corn oil (gavage) control B6C3F1 mice, the development of squamous cell papillomas of the forestomach may have been related to diallyl phthalate administration.
Under the conditions of this bioassay, the development of chronic inflammation and hyperplasia of the forestomach in both male and female B6C3F1 mice was considered to be related to the administration of diallyl phthalate. The development of squamous cell papillomas of the forestomach may also have been related to chemical administration, but the available data are insufficient to indicate a clear cause and effect relationship. An increase in the incidence of male mice with lymphomas was observed, but this increase was considered only to be equivocally related to diallyl phthalate administration. The results of this bioassay, therefore, do not indicate that diallyl phthalate is carcinogenic in B6C3F1 mice, although a maximum tolerated dose may not have been achieved. A carcinogenicity study by the National Toxicology Program of diallyl phthalate in male and female Fisher 344/N rats, employing daily gavage doses of 0 (vehicle control), 50, or 100 mg/kg body weight is currently being evaluated.