1,4-Dichlorobenzene is commonly used as a space deodorant in toilets and for moth control. Because of its extensive production and use and the absence of carcinogenicity data, carcinogenesis studies were conducted by administering 1,4-dichlorobenzene (greater than 99% pure) in corn oil by gavage (5 days per week) to male F344/N rats at doses of 0, 150, or 300 mg/kg and to female F344/N rats and male and female B6C3F1 mice at doses of 0, 300, or 600 mg/kg per day for 2 years (50 animals per group). Fourteen-day and 13-week studies were performed to characterize the toxicity, identify affected sites, and set doses for the 2-year studies. Clinical chemistry and hematologic studies were performed during the 13-week studies to assess the effects of 1,4-dichlorobenzene on the liver, kidney, and hematopoietic system and to assess whether the compound produced hepatic porphyria.
Two 13-week studies were performed in rats. In the first study, rats were dosed with 300-1,500 mg/kg 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Because histologic changes were observed in the kidney of male rats at all doses, a second 13-week study was performed at doses of 38-600 mg/kg. In the 13-week studies, survival was decreased in groups of male rats given 1,200 or 1,500 mg/kg and in female rats given 1,500 mg/kg. Weight gain was decreased in male rats receiving doses of 300 mg/kg or more and in female rats given doses of 1,200 or 1,500 mg/kg. Doses of 1,200 or 1,500 mg/kg produced degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes, hypoplasia of the bone marrow, lymphoid depletion of the spleen and thymus, and epithelial necrosis of the nasal turbinates in male and female rats. Renal tubular cell degeneration was observed in male rats receiving 300 mg/kg or more in the first study, but only slight changes were seen at 300 mg/kg in the second study. Liver weight to brain weight ratios were increased at 900 mg/kg or more for both male and female rats. The kidney weight to brain weight ratio was increased in male rats receiving doses of 600 mg/kg or more.
Administration of 1,4-dichlorobenzene to rats for 13 weeks produced slight but statistically significant decreases in the hematocrit, red blood cell count, and hemoglobin level in all males receiving doses of 300-1,200 mg/kg. No clear hematologic changes were observed in female rats. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene produced minimal changes in clinical chemistry parameters in the 13-week studies. Serum cholesterol levels were increased by doses of 600 mg/kg or more in male rats and 900 mg/kg or more in female rats. Serum triglycerides were reduced by doses of 300 mg/kg or more in male rats. The blood urea nitrogen level was increased slightly in male rats dosed with 900 mg/kg or more. Urinary porphyrins were increased slightly in male rats administered 1,200 or 1,500 mg/kg and female rats receiving 1,200 mg/kg. However, these increases were modest and indicative of a mild porphyrinuria rather than hepatic porphyria. Liver porphyrins were not increased at any dose.
Two 13-week studies were performed in mice. The doses selected for the first study were 600-1,800 mg/kg. Survival was decreased in male and female mice receiving doses of 1,500 mg/kg or more, and body weight gain was decreased at all doses. Hepatocellular degeneration was observed in both sexes at all doses, and the liver weight to brain weight ratio was increased at doses of 900 mg/kg or more. Serum cholesterol levels were increased in male mice at doses of 900 mg/kg or more, whereas serum protein and triglycerides were increased at doses of 1,500 mg/kg or more. These relatively modest clinical chemistry changes probably reflect the hepatic effects of this compound. The white blood cell count was reduced significantly in male mice receiving doses of 600 mg/kg or more and female mice receiving 1,000 mg/kg or more, but this effect was not dramatic. Hepatic porphyria was not found in mice at any dose in the 13-week study. Because hepatic effects were seen in all dose groups in the first study, a second 13-week study was performed at doses of 85-900 mg/kg. In this study, hepatocellular cytomegaly was observed im male and female mice at doses of 675 mg/kg or more but not at 338 mg/kg. Renal damage was not observed in mice in either 13-week study.
Based on the histopathologic findings in the kidney of male rats and in the liver of both sexes of rats and mice in the 13-week studies, the doses selected for the 2-year studies were 150 and 300 mg/kg for male rats and 300 and 600 mg/kg for female rats and male and female mice. In the 2-year studies, survival of female rats and of both sexes of mice was comparable to that of the vehicle controls; survival of high dose male rats was significantly lower than that of the vehicle controls (vehicle control, 32/50; low dose, 31/50; high dose, 20/50). Mean body weights of high dose male rats were 5%-8% lower than those of vehicle controls after week 38, and those of high dose female rats were 5%-7% lower than those of vehicle controls after week 55. Mean body weights of mice dosed with 1,4-dichlorobenzene were comparable to those of vehicle controls throughout the studies.
Administration of 1,4-dichlorobenzene to male rats increased the average seveity of nephropathy and caused epithelial hyperplasia of the renal pelvis (1/50; 30/50; 31/50), mineralization of the collecting tubules in the renal medulla (4/50; 46/50; 47/50), and focal hyperplasia of renal tubular epithelium (0/50; 1/50; 9/50). There were increased incidences of nephropathy in both low and high dose female rats compared with vehicle controls (21/49; 32/50; 41/49). 1,4-Dichlorobenzene produced a dose-related increase in the incidence of tubular cell adenocarcinomas of the kidney in male rats (1/50; 3/50; 7/50); one tubular cell adenoma was observed in a high dose male rat. These malignant tumors are uncommon in male F344/N rats. They have been diagnosed in only 4/1,098 (0.4%) corn oil gavage controls in previous NTP studies. There were no tubular cell tumors in dosed or vehicle control female rats. There was a marginal increase in the incidence of mononuclear cell leukemia in dosed male rats compared with that in vehicle controls (5/50; 7/50; 11/50).
1,4-Dichlorobenzene increased the incidences of nonneoplastic liver lesions in male and female mice, including alteration in cell size (cytomegaly and karyomegaly), hepatocellular degeneration, and individual cell necrosis. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene also increased the incidences of nephropathy in male mice and renal tubular regeneration in female mice. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene increased the incidences of hepatocellular carcinomas in high dose male (14/50; 11/49; 32/50) and female (5/50; 5/48; 19/50) mice and hepatocellular adenomas in dosed male (5/50; 13/49; 16/50) and high dose female (10/50; 6/48; 21/50) mice. Hepatoblastomas were observed in four high dose male mice but not in vehicle controls. This rare tumor has not occurred in 1,091 male vehicle control mice in NTP studies. An increase in thyroid gland follicular cell hyperplasia was observed in dosed male mice (1/47; 4/48; 10/47), and there was a marginal positive trend in the incidence of follicular cell adenomas of the thyroid gland in female mice (0/48; 0/45; 3/46). Pheochromocytomas (benign or malignant, combined) of the adrenal gland occurred with a positive trend in dosed male mice, and the incidence in the high dose group was significantly greater than in vehicle controls (0/47; 2/48; 4/49). The incidence of adrenal gland medullary hyperplasia in male mice was 2/47; 4/48; and 4/49. Focal hyperplasia of the adrenal gland capsule was also observed in dosed male mice (11/47;21/48; 28/49).
1,4-Dichlorobenzene was not mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, TA1535, or TA1537 with or without activation by Aroclor 1254-induced male Sprague-Dawley rat or male Syrian hamster liver S9 when tested according to a preincubational protocol at concentrations up to 100 ug/plate. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene did not induce forward mutations in the mouse lymphoma L5178Y/TK+/- assay in the absence of exogenous metabolic activation; however, the results were equivocal in this system in the presence of metabolic activation. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene did not produce an increase in sister-chromatid exchanges or chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells in culture with or without exogenous metabolic activation. No increase in micronucleated cells was seen in erythrocytes of mice from the first 13-week studies.
An audit of the experimental data was conducted for the 2-year studies of 1,4-dichlorobenzene. No data discrepancies were found that influenced the final interpretations.
Under the conditions of these 2-year gavage studies, 1,4-dichlorobenzene produced clear evidence of carcinogenicity for male F344/N rats, as shown by an increased incidence of renal tubular cell adenocarcinomas. There was no evidence of carcinogenicity for female F344/N rats receiving doses of 300 or 600 mg/kg. There was clear evidence of carcinogenicity for both male and female B6C3F1 mice, as shown by increased incidences of hepatocellular carcinomas and hepatocellular adenomas. Marginal increases were observed in the incidences of pheochromocytomas of the adrenal gland in male mice. Nonneoplastic effects in the kidney of male and female rats, in the liver of male and female mice, and in the thyroid gland and adrenal gland of male mice were also associated with the administration of 1,4-dichlorobenzene.