p-Chloroaniline has a large production volume and is used as a dye intermediate. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of p-chloroaniline (greater than 99% pure) were conducted by administering p-chloroaniline hydrochloride in water by gavage to groups of F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice of each sex for 16 days, 13 weeks, or 2 years. Vehicle controls were given deionized water by gavage. All doses were calculated as p-chloroaniline; the chemical was administered as the hydrochloride after dissolution in water containing molar equivalents of hydrochloric acid. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium, mouse L5178Y lymphoma cells, and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Hematologic parameters were measured at the end of the 13-week studies and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months in the 2-year studies. Supplemental studies of the distribution and disposition of p-chloroaniline were conducted in male F344 rats.
Sixteen-day and thirteen-week studies
In the 16-day studies, male and female rats and mice received 25, 50, 100, or 400 mg/kg of body weight. The vehicle controls received deionized water. All rats and mice that received 200 or 400 mg/kg died during the first 6 days of the studies. Some deaths occurred in each of the lower dose groups of mice. Splenic enlargement was observed at necropsy in rats administered 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg. Congestion of the spleen and hemosiderin deposition in the renal cortical tubular epithelial cells were observed at 100 mg/kg in male and female rats. Compound-related lesions in mice included hemosiderosis of the liver Kupffer cells and congestion of the spleen.
In the 13-week studies, 10 rats of each sex were administered doses of 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, or 80 mg/kg. All male rats lived to the end of the 13-week studies. One of 10 female rats that received 80 mg/kg died from unknown causes. The final mean body weights of rats that received 80 mg/kg were 16% lower than that of vehicle controls for males and 4% lower for females. In the 13-week studies in mice, 10 animals of each sex were administered doses of 0, 7.5, 15, 30, 60, or 120 mg/kg. Deaths in mice were not related to p-chloroaniline hydrochloride administration. The final mean body weights of dosed and vehicle control mice were similar. In both rats and mice, no chemically related effects on organ weights were observed at necropsy, except for the spleen, which was enlarged as a function of increasing dose. Methemoglobin was increased in dosed groups and resulted in a secondary anemia, the severity of which was dose related. Compound-related lesions observed histologically, including pigmentation (hemosiderin) in the kidney, spleen, and liver and hematopoiesis in the liver and spleen, reflected the response to the hemolytic anemia and methemoglobinemia induced by p-chloroaniline hydrochloride.
Based on these results, groups of 50 rats of each sex were administered 2, 6, or 18 mg/kg p-chloroaniline hydrochloride in water by gavage, 5 days per week for 103 weeks. Groups of 50 mice of each sex were administered 3, 10, or 30 mg/kg on the same schedule.
Metabolism and disposition studies in rats
The metabolism and disposition studies in F344/N rats showed that metabolic and excretory pathways were not saturated by p-chloroaniline administered orally at doses ranging from 0.3 to 30 mg/kg. p-Chloroaniline was rapidly metabolized and excreted primarily in urine with a half-life of approximately 2 hours.
Body weight and survival
Mean body weights of dosed rats were generally within 5% of those of vehicle controls throughout the studies. The survival of the low and mid dose groups of male rats and of the low and high dose groups of female rats was significantly greater than that of the vehicle controls (male: vehicle control, 18/49; low dose, 32/50; mid dose, 32/50; high dose, 21/50; female: 27/50; 39/50; 36/50; 37/50). The increased survival was attributed to the decreased incidences of mononuclear cell leukemia. Mean body weights of high dose male and female mice were generally within 5% of those of vehicle controls throughout the studies. The survival of the mid dose group of male mice was lower than that of the vehicle controls after week 99 (male: 43/50; 36/50; 29/50; 35/50; female: 39/50; 42/50; 44/50; 41/50).
Nonneoplastic and neoplastic effects
Fibrosis of the spleen was increased in dosed male and high dose female rats (male: vehicle control, 3/49; low dose, 11/50; mid dose, 12/50; high dose, 41/50; female: 1/50; 2/50; 3/50; 42/50). Cellular infiltration of lipocytes (fatty metaplasia) was observed in the spleen at increased incidences in high dose rats (male: 0/49; 0/50; 0/50; 24/50; female: 0/50; 0/50; 0/50; 11/50). The incidence of uncommon sarcomas of the spleen in high dose male rats was significantly greater than that in the vehicle controls (fibrosarcomas, osteosarcomas, or hemangiosarcomas, combined: 0/49; 1/50; 3/50; 38/50). Many of these tumors metastasized to one or more sites. In female rats, one fibrosarcoma of the spleen was found in a mid dose animal, and one osteosarcoma of the spleen was found in a high dose animal. The historical incidence of splenic connective tissue sarcomas (all types) in water gavage vehicle controls is 1/298 (0.3%) for male rats and 0/297 for female rats. The historical incidence of hemangiosarcomas in water gavage controls is 0/300 for male rats and 1/297 (0.3%) for female rats.
Adrenal medullary hyperplasia was observed at an increased incidence in high dose female rats (4/50; 4/50; 7/50; 24/50). Marginally increased incidences of pheochromocytomas were seen in high dose male (13/49; 14/48; 15/48; 26/49) and female (2/50; 3/50; 1/50; 6/50) rats. The historical incidence of pheochromocytomas in water gavage vehicle control male F344/N rats is 121/299 (40% ± 16%); the historical incidence in water gavage vehicle control female F344/N rats is 20/295 (7% ± 2%).
The incidences of mononuclear cell leukemia in dosed male and female rats were lower than those in vehicle controls (male: 21/49; 3/50; 2/50; 3/50; female: 10/50; 2/50; 1/50; 1/50). The incidences of malignant lymphomas in dosed male and female mice were lower than those in vehicle controls (male: 10/50; 3/49; 9/50; 3/50; female: 19/50; 12/50; 5/50; 10/50).
Hematologic and methemoglobin measurements were made on blood samples collected from 15 randomly selected male and female rats per dose group at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. In general, the high dose group at various intervals showed mild hemolytic anemia and dose-related increases in methemoglobin.
In rats, compound-related nonneoplastic lesions were seen histopathologically in the bone marrow, spleen, and liver. These lesions included bone marrow hyperplasia, hepatic hemosiderosis, and splenic fibrosis and suggest compound-related effects on the hematopoietic system in general, the erythropoietic system specifically, and mesenchymal cells in the spleen.
In male mice, the incidence of hemangiosarcomas of the liver or spleen in high dose male mice was greater than that in the vehicle controls (4/50; 4/49; 1/50; 10/50). The historical incidence of hemangiomas or hemangiosarcomas at all sites (combined) in water gavage vehicle control male B6C3F1 mice is 11/350 (3% ± 3%).
The incidences of hepatocellular adenomas or carcinomas (combined) were increased in dosed male mice (11/50; 21/49; 20/50; 21/50), primarily due to increased incidences of hepatocellular carcinomas (3/50; 7/49; 11/50; 17/50). Hepatocellular carcinomas metastasized to the lung in 1/50 vehicle control, 1/49 low dose, 2/50 mid dose, and 9/50 high dose male mice. The historical incidence ofhepatocellular neoplasms in water gavage vehicle controls is 106/347 (31 ± 6%).
Genetic toxicologyp-Chloroaniline was mutagenic in S. typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 in the presence of exogenous metabolic activation; no increase in revertant colonies was observed in strains TA97, TA1535, or TA1537. p-Chloroaniline induced trifluorothymidine (Tft) resistance in mouse L5178Y lymphoma cells with and without metabolic activation. In cultured CHO cells, treatment with p-chloroaniline produced significant increases in sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) both with and without metabolic activation (S9); chromosomal aberrations were significantly increased only in the presence of S9.
The data, documents, and pathology materials from the 2-year studies of p-chloroaniline have been audited. The audit findings show that the conduct of the studies is documented adequately and support the data and results given in this Technical Report.
Under the conditions of these 2-year water gavage studies, there was clear evidence of carcinogenic activity of p-chloroaniline hydrochloride for male F344/N rats, as indicated by increased incidences of uncommon sarcomas of the spleen. Pheochromocytomas of the adrenal gland may also have been associated with chemical administration. There was equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity of p-chloroaniline hydrochloride for female F344/N rats, as indicated by the presence of uncommon sarcomas of the spleen in one mid and one high dose animal and the increased incidence of pheochromocytomas of the adrenal gland. There was some evidence of carcinogenic activity of p-chloroaniline hydrochloride for male B6C3F1 mice, as indicated by increased incidences of hepatocellular neoplasms and of hemangiosarcomas of the liver or spleen. There was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of p-chloroaniline hydrochloride for female B6C3F1 mice administered 3, 10, or 30 mg/kg by gavage for 2 years.
The incidences of mononuclear cell leukemia in male and female rats and of malignant lymphomas in male and female mice were decreased by administration of p-chloroaniline hydrochloride. Compound-related splenic fibrosis was present in male and female rats.