Immunotoxicity Associated with Exposure to Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) or Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS)
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are extremely persistent chemicals that are widely distributed in the environment as a result of high chemical stability under normal environmental conditions and extensive use over the last 50 years in commercial and industrial applications including fluoropolymer manufacturing, food packaging, lubricants, water-resistant coating, and fire-fighting foams. PFOS was phased out of production and use in 2002, and U.S. manufacturers eliminated PFOA emissions and product content at the end of 2015. Although emissions have been dramatically reduced in the United Status and Western Europe, it is not clear if global production has changed as there has been a shift in productions to Asia. Some published studies of PFOA and PFOS raised concerns about potential immune system health effects and NTP received nominations to conduct a review of immune effects for these chemicals.
NTP conducted a systematic review to evaluate the evidence on exposure to PFOA or PFOS and immune-related health effects to determine whether exposure to either chemical is associated with immunotoxicity for humans. NTP concludes that both PFOA and PFOS are presumed to be an immune hazard to humans based on a high level of evidence from animal studies that PFOA and PFOS suppressed the antibody response and a moderate level of evidence from studies in humans. The evidence that these chemicals affect multiple aspects of the immune system supports the overall conclusion that both PFOA and PFOS alter immune functions in humans.
|Jun 01, 2015||NTP Protocol|
|Aug 14, 2015||Federal Register notice requesting information and nomination of scientific experts for proposed peer review meeting|
|Feb 26, 2016||Federal Register notice|
|May 18, 2016||Literature Search Results|
|Sep 01, 2016||NTP Monograph - Final
Preferred Citation: NTP (National Toxicology Program). 2016. Monograph on Immunotoxicity Associated with Exposure to Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Research Triangle Park, NC: National Toxicology Program. https://
Meetings & Events
|Jul 19, 2016||Peer Review of the Draft NTP Monograph on Immunotoxicity Associated with Exposure to Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) or Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS)||Expert Panels - NTP Monographs||
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