2-Amino-5-nitrophenol is used as a colorant in semipermanent hair dyes and in the manufacture of C.I. Solvent Red 8, an azo dye for synthetic resins, lacquers, and wood stains. 2-Amino-5-nitrophenol was nominated for toxicology and carcinogenesis studies by the National Cancer Institute because of widespread human exposure associated with its use in hair dyes.
Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies were conducted by administering 2-amino-5-nitrophenol (98% pure) by gavage in corn oil 5 days per week to groups of F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice of each sex in 16-day, 13-week, and 2-year studies. In the 2-year studies, male and female rats were given doses of 0, 100, or 200 mg/kg and male and female mice were given doses of 0, 400, or 800 mg/kg.
Sixteen-day and thirteen-week studies
During the 16-day studies, F344/N rats of each sex received 0, 156, 313, 625, 1,250, or 2,500 mg/kg 2-amino-5-nitrophenol by gavage in corn oil vehicle. One of the five males that received 2,500 mg/kg, 1/5 females that received 1,250 mg/kg, and 2/5 females that received 313 mg/kg died before the end of the studies. Final mean body weights of rats that received 1,250 or 2,500 mg/kg were 11% and 30% lower than that of vehicle controls for males and 9% and 13% lower for females. B6C3F1 mice of each sex received doses of 0, 313, 625, 1,250, 2,500, or 5,000 mg/kg 2-amino-5-nitrophenol. Two of five males and 5/5 females that received 5,000 mg/kg, 3/5 males and 3/5 females that received 2,500 mg/kg, 3/5 females that received 1,250 mg/kg, 1/5 females that received 625 mg/kg, and 2/5 male vehicle controls died before the end of the studies. Final mean body weights of chemically exposed mice were not different from those of the vehicle controls. Rats that received 625, 1,250, or 2,500 mg/kg and male mice that received 5,000 mg/kg had loose stools.
In 13-week studies, F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice of both sexes received 0, 100, 200, 400, 800, or 1,600 mg/kg 2-amino-5-nitrophenol by gavage in corn oil. Five of 10 male and 2/10 female rats that received 1,600 mg/kg, 1/10 male and 3/10 female rats that received 800 mg/kg, and 1/10 male rats that received 400 mg/kg died before the end of the studies. Final mean body weights of males that received 400, 800, or 1,600 mg/kg were 10%, 25%, and 43% lower than that of vehicle controls. The final mean body weight of females that received 1,600 mg/kg was 16% lower that of vehicle controls.
Four of 10 male and 3/10 female mice that received 1,600 mg/kg died before the end of the 13-week studies. The final mean body weight of male mice that received 1,600 mg/kg was 11% lower than that of vehicle controls; male and female mice that received 1,600 mg/kg appeared lethargic.
During the 13-week studies, acute/chronic perivasculitis of vessels of the cecum and colon was observed in rats that received 400, 800, or 1,600 mg/kg and in mice that received 1,600 mg/kg.
Body weight and survival
Mean body weights of rats receiving 200 mg/kg were 5%-10% lower than those of vehicle controls after week 33 for males and 4%-5% lower than those of vehicle controls after week 93 for females. Survival of male rats was significantly lower than that of vehicle controls after week 99 for the 100 mg/kg dose group and after week 75 for the 200 mg/kg dose group (final survival: vehicle control, 33/50; 100 mg/kg group, 16/50; 200 mg/kg group, 4/50). Survival of female rats was comparable to that of vehicle controls (30/50; 32/50; 29/50). Loose or poorly formed stools were observed for male rats and occasionally for females that received 200 mg/kg.
Mean body weights of mice that received 800 mg/kg were 8%-11% lower than those of vehicle controls between weeks 29 and 74 for males and 8%-13% lower than those of vehicle controls after week 69 for females; mean body weights of mice that received 400 mg/kg were greater than those of vehicle controls after week 69 for males and 5%-9% lower than those of vehicle controls after week 69 for females. Survival of mice that received 800 mg/kg was significantly reduced compared with that of vehicle controls after week 20 for males and week 22 for females and was not considered adequate to evaluate a carcinogenic response (final survival--male: vehicle control, 31/50; 400 mg/kg group, 36/50; 800 mg/kg group, 12/50; female: 37/50; 36/50; 10/50).
Nonneoplastic and neoplastic effects
Pigmentation was present at increased incidences in all groups of chemically exposed animals and was characterized by varying amounts of an orange, granular pigment present in the fibrous connective tissue of the lamina propria, in the submucosa, and around vessels in the submucosa of the cecum and colon. Pigmentation of the rectum was observed at increased incidences in male rats that received 100 mg/kg, male and female rats that received 200 mg/kg, and both groups of chemically exposed mice. No pigmentation was found in the intestines of vehicle control rats or mice. Associated with pigmentation was an increased incidence of acute/chronic inflammation in the cecum and colon of all groups chemically exposed rats and mice; this inflammation was similar to that observed in the 13-week studies but was of greater severity. Acute/chronic inflammation was also present in the rectum of male rats that received 100 mg/kg, male and female rats that received 200 mg/kg, and male mice that received 800 mg/kg.
The incidence of pancreatic acinar cell adenomas was significantly increased (P<0.002) in male rats that received 100 mg/kg 2-amino-5-nitrophenol (vehicle control, 1/50; 100 mg/kg, 10/50; 200 mg/kg, 3/49); the increase was considered to be associated with chemical exposure. The reduced survival of male rats that received 200 mg/kg markedly reduced the sensitivity of this group for detecting the presence of neoplasms. The incidences of adenomas or carcinomas (combined) of the preputial or clitoral glands were marginally increased in male or female rats that received 200 mg/kg 2-amino-5-nitrophenol (preputial gland: 3/50; 2/50; 5/50; clitoral gland: 3/50; 3/50; 7/50). Neoplasms found in the intestinal tract of 3/50 male rats that received 100 mg/kg (one leiomyoma of the small intestine, one adenocarcinoma of the jejunum, one leiomyoma of the cecum), 2/50 male rats that received 200 mg/kg (one lipoma and one osteosarcoma of the cecum), and 1/50 female rats that received 200 mg/kg (one leiomyoma of the cecum) were not considered to be the result of chemical exposure. No compound-related neoplasms were found in mice exposed to 2-amino-5-nitrophenol in the 2-year studies.
2-Amino-5-nitrophenol was mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, and TA1537 when tested in a preincubation protocol with and without exogenous metabolic activation, and it exhibited equivocal mutagenic activity in strain TA1535 in the presence of induced liver S9. 2-Amino-5-nitrophenol induced forward mutations in mouse L5178Y lymphoma cells in the absence of metabolic activation; it was not tested with S9. An increase in chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges was observed in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells following incubation with 2-amino-5-nitrophenol both in the presence and absence of exogenous metabolic activation.
The data, documents, and pathology materials from the 2-year studies of 2-amino-5-nitrophenol were audited at the NTP Archives. The audit findings show that the conduct of the studies is documented adequately and support the data and results given in this Technical Report.
Under the conditions of these 2-year gavage studies, there was some evidence of carcinogenic activity for male F344/N rats that received 100 mg/kg 2-amino-5-nitrophenol, as shown by the increased incidence of acinar cell adenomas of the pancreas. Reduced survival of male F344/N rats that received 200 mg/kg decreased the sensitivity of this group for detecting a carcinogenic response. There was no evidence of carcinogenic activity for female rats that received 100 or 200 mg/kg per day. Marginally increased incidences of preputial or clitoral gland adenomas or carcinomas (combined) occurred in male and female F344/N rats administered 200 mg/kg 2-amino-5-nitrophenol. There was no evidence of carcinogenic activity for B6C3F1 mice that received 400 mg/kg 2-amino-5-nitrophenol; reduced survival of B6C3F1 mice that received 800 mg/kg caused this group to be considered inadequate for detecting a carcinogenic response.