2-Amino-4-nitrophenol is used to color semipermanent hair dyes and in the manufacture of mordant dyes for leather, nylon, silk, wool, and fur. 2-Amino-4-nitrophenol was nominated by the National Cancer Institute for toxicology and carcinogenesis studies because of widespread human exposure associated with its manufacture and use. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies were conducted by administering 2-amino-4-nitrophenol (98% pure) in corn oil by gavage, 5 days per week, to groups of F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice of each sex in 15-day, 13-week, and 2-year studies.
Fifteen-day and thirteen-week studies
During the 15-day studies, rats and mice received doses of 0, 313, 625, 1,250, 2,500, or 5,000 mg/kg. All rats that received 2,500 or 5,000 mg/kg and all female rats that received 1,250 mg/kg died before the end of the studies. Final mean body weights of chemically exposed rats surviving to the end of the studies were comparable to those of vehicle controls. Diarrhea was observed in all groups of exposed rats except those receiving 313 mg/kg. All mice that received 2,500 or 5,000 mg/kg, 2/5 males and all females that received 1,250 mg/kg, and 1/5 females that received 313 mg/kg died before the end of the studies. Final mean body weights of exposed mice surviving until the end of the studies were comparable to those of vehicle controls.
In 13-week studies, F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice of each sex received 2-amino-4-nitrophenol at doses of 0, 62.5, 125, 250, 500, or 1,000 mg/kg. All rats that received 1,000 mg/kg and 2/10 males and 2/10 females that received 500 mg/kg died before the end of the studies. The final mean body weight of male rats that received 500 mg/kg was reduced 10% compared with that of vehicle controls; final mean body weights of all other surviving exposed rat groups were comparable to those of vehicle controls. Diarrhea and lethargy were observed for rats that received 500 or 1,000 mg/kg. All male mice and most females that received 1,000 mg/kg and 4/10 females that received 500 mg/kg died before the end of the studies. Final mean body weights of chemically exposed mice were comparable to those of vehicle controls. No compound-related clinical signs were observed in mice during the studies.
Mineralization of the renal cortex and degeneration of the renal tubular epithelium were observed in male and female rats that received 1,000 mg/kg and in males that received 500 mg/kg. Degeneration and necrosis of the renal tubular epithelium was observed in 5/10 male and 3/10 female mice that received 1,000 mg/kg.
Body weight and survival
In the 2-year studies, rats and mice received 2-amino- 4- nitrophenol at doses of 0, 125, or 250 mg/kg. Mean body weights of male rats that received 250 mg/kg were 8%-10% lower than those of vehicle controls throughout most of the 2-year study. Mean body weights of female rats were comparable to those of vehicle controls. Soft stools and occasional diarrhea were observed in chemically exposed rats starting 6 months after the beginning of the studies. Survival of male rats that received 250 mg/kg was markedly lower than that of vehicle controls after week 89 (final survival: vehicle control, 32/50; 125 mg/kg group, 24/50; 250 mg/kg group, 10/50). Survival of female rats was comparable among all groups (final survival: 25/50; 27/50; 31/50).
Mean body weights of male and female mice that received 250 mg/kg were comparable to those of vehicle controls; the mean body weights of female mice that received 125 mg/kg were as much as 17% greater than that of vehicle controls. Survival of all mouse groups was comparable during the 2-year studies (final survival: male-- 28/50; 29/50; 23/50; female--28/50; 31/50; 30/50).
Nonneoplastic and neoplastic effects
Pigmentation of the small and large intestines was present in exposed rats but not in vehicle controls. Ulcers and erosive lesions of the digestive tract were observed in male rats that received 250 mg/kg and to a lesser extent in male rats that received 125 mg/kg. A carcinoma of the colon occurred in one male rat that received 250 mg/kg; no other neoplasms were observed in the gastrointestinal tract of rats. No pigmentation, ulcers, or erosive lesions were found in the digestive tract of mice.
The severity of nephropathy was markedly greater in exposed male rats than in vehicle controls. Associated with the nephropathy were nonneoplastic lesions indicative of reduced renal function and secondary hyperparathyroidism, including parathyroid hyperplasia, mineralization of various organs, and fibrous osteodystrophy.
Renal tubular cell hyperplasia (1/50; 4/48; 5/50) and renal cortical (tubular cell) adenomas (0/50; 1/48; 3/50) occurred in male rats. Renal cortical adenomas are infrequently observed in male F344/N rats (historical incidence, 0.5%).
More preputial gland adenomas or carcinomas (combined) were observed in low dose male rats than in vehicle controls (3/50; 10/48; 3/50), whereas the incidences of clitoral gland neoplasms were decreased in dosed female rats (9/50; 6/50; 1/49).
Hemangiomas or hemangiosarcomas (combined) occurred in male mice that received 2-amino-4-nitrophenol (0/50; 1/50; 5/50); each tumor was present at a different site. The historical control incidence is 11% at the study laboratory and 6% in 2-year NTP studies.
2-Amino-4-nitrophenol was mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation. 2-Amino-4-nitrophenol was not mutagenic in strains TA1535 or TA1537. 2-Amino-4-nitrophenol was mutagenic in the mouse lymphoma L5178Y/TK+/- assay without metabolic activation. It was not tested with activation. 2-Amino-4-nitrophenol induced sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells in the presence and absence of metabolic activation.
The data, documents, and pathology materials from the 2-year studies of 2-amino-4-nitrophenol were audited at the NTP Archives. The audit findings show that the conduct of the studies is documented adequately and support the data and results given in this Technical Report.
Under the conditions of these 2-year gavage studies, there was some evidence of carcinogenic activity of 2-amino-4-nitrophenol for male F344/N rats, as shown by increased incidences of renal cortical (tubular cell) adenomas. The incidences of renal tubular cell hyperplasia were also increased in male rats exposed to 2-amino-4-nitrophenol. The survival of male rats that received 2-amino-4-nitrophenol was reduced compared with survival of vehicle control male rats. There was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of 2-amino-4-nitrophenol for female F344/N rats or for male or female B6C3F1 mice that received 125 or 250 mg/kg per day.