N,N-Dimethylanilineis used as a chemical intermediate in the synthesis of dyestuffs. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies were conducted by administering N,N-dimethylaniline (greater than 98% pure) in corn oil by gavage to groups of F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice of each sex for 2 weeks, 13 weeks, or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium, mouse lymphoma cells, and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)cells.
Two-week and thirteen-week studies
In the 2-week studies, doses were 94-1, 500mg/kg; deaths of rats and mice were observed in groups given doses of 750 or 1,500 mg/kg. The final mean body weights of male rats that received 375 or750 mg/kg were 15% or 47% lower than that of vehicle controls; final mean body weights of other groups of rats and mice were similar to those of vehicle controls. Compound-related clinical signs observed included cyanosis in rats and lethargy and tremors in rats and mice. Splenomegaly occurred in nearly all dosed groups of rats and mice, and the incidences were dose related.
In the 13-week studies, doses were 32-500 mg/kg; no compound-related deaths occurred. The final mean body weights of male rats that received 250 or 500 mg/kg were 15% or 27% lower than that of vehicle controls. The final mean body weights of all groups of dosed female rats and male and female mice were within 12% of those of vehicle controls. Compound-related clinical signs included lethargy in rats and mice and cyanosis in rats. Splenomegaly was observed in all dosed groups of rats and mice; the severity was dose related. Compound-related extra medullary hematopoiesis and hemosiderosis occurred in the kidney or testis of dosed rats and liver and spleen of dosed rats and mice.
Two-year studies were conducted by administering 0, 3, or 30 mg/kg N,N-dimethylaniline in corn oil by gavage, 5 days per week for 103 weeks, to groups of 50 rats ofeach sex. The lower dose was selected to be one-tenth the higher dose to increase the likelihood that one dose would cause only aminimal nonneoplastic response. Groups of 50 mice of each sex were administered 0, 15, or 30 mg/kg on the same schedule.
Body weight and survival
Mean body weights of vehicle control and dosed rats and mice were similar throughout the studies. Survival rates of all respective groups were similar after 2 years, except for the lowered survival of vehicle control female rats (vehicle control, 21/50; low dose 32/50; high dose, 36/50). This may reflect the large number (24/50) of vehicle control female rats killed when observed to be in a moribund state. Final survival for other groups was as follows: male rats--29/50; 32/50; 28/50; male mice--34/50;30/50; 34/50; female mice--35/50;39/50; 33/50.
Nonneoplastic and neoplastic effects
In these 2-year studies, the spleen was the expected site of chemical-related effects. Fatty metamorphosis and fibrosis in the spleen of high dose male rats were increased (fatty metamorphosis: vehicle control, 0/49; low dose, 1/49; high dose, 10/50; fibrosis: 5/49; 2/49; 22/50). Splenic hemosiderosis and hematopoiesis were present at an incidence greater than 85% in all groups of rats; however, the severity of the lesions was greater in dosed groups than in vehicle controls. Sarcomas of the spleen were seen in 3/50 high dose male rats, and an osteosarcoma was seen in another high dose male rat. One additional high dose male rat had a sarcoma of the thymus. Splenic sarcomas are uncommon in corn oil vehicle control male F344/N rats (NTP historical incidence 3/2,081, 0.1%), and thus, these neoplasms in high dose male rats(4/50, 8%) were considered to be chemically related.
Lower incidences of mononuclear cell leukemia (which apparently originates in the spleen) were seen in dosed male and female rats than in vehicle controls (male: 13/50; 4/50; 3/50; female: 11/50; 7/50; 0/50).
The incidence of squamous cell papillomas of the forestomach in high dose female mice was marginally greater than that in vehicle controls (2/50; 2/50;8/50). No malignant forestomach neoplasms were observed.
N,N-Dimethylaniline was not mutagenic in S. typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, TA1535, or TA1537 in the presence or absence of exogenous metabolic activation. In the mouse lymphoma assay, N,N-dimethylaniline produced a positive response with and without metabolic activation. In CHO cells, N,N-dimethylaniline induced both sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and chromosomal aberrations in the presence of exogenous metabolic activation. Without activation, an increase in chromosomal aberrations was observed, but no increase in SCEs occurred.
Under the conditions of these 2-year gavage studies, there was some evidence of carcinogenic activity of N,N-dimethylaniline for male F344/N rats, as indicated by the increased incidences of sarcomas or osteosarcomas (combined) of the spleen. There was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of N,N-dimethylanilinefor female F344/N rats given 3 or 30 mg/kg body weight by gavage for 2 years. There was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of N,N-dimethylaniline for male B6C3F1 mice given 15 or 30 mg/kg bodyweight by gavage for 2 years. There was equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity of N,N-dimethylaniline for female B6C3F1 mice, as indicated by an increased incidence of squamous cell papillomas of the forestomach. Both rats and mice could have tolerated doses higher than those used in these studies.
There were decreased incidences of mononuclear cell leukemia in dosed male and high dose female rats. Compound-related splenic fibrosis, hemosiderosis, and fatty metamorphosis were increased in male rats.