ALTBIB - Alternatives to Animal Testing

Welcome to ALTBIB, the Bibliography on Alternatives to the Use of Live Vertebrates in Biomedical Research and Testing. The National Library of Medicine (NLM) developed ALTBIB to provide access to PubMed citations for users seeking information on alternatives to animal testing. Many citations provide access to free full text.

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Federal agencies promote the use of alternatives to animal testing for biomedical research and toxicity testing. Research on such alternatives aims to:

  • Refine procedures to decrease pain and distress.
  • Reduce the number of animals required to provide scientifically valid results.
  • Replace animals with non-animal systems or one animal species with a phylogenetically lower one.
Development of alternative methods is an active area of research. The ALTBIB search tool provides users with access via PubMed to the latest research on in vitro and computational methods to predict toxicity, as well as approaches to refining animal use for study types that still require animals. ALTBIB also provides links to additional resources on alternative methods research and acceptance.