Skip to Main Navigation
Skip to Page Content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

The .gov means it's official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you're on a federal government site.


The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Share This:

ALTBIB - Alternatives to Animal Testing

Welcome to the new home of ALTBIB, the Bibliography on Alternatives to the Use of Live Vertebrates in Biomedical Research and Testing. The National Library of Medicine (NLM) developed ALTBIB to provide access to PubMed citations for users seeking information on alternatives to animal testing. Many citations provide access to free full text.

Run ALTBIB Search

Please enter a search term.

Limit Search

View or edit PubMed search strategy

More help with ALTBIB searches


Federal agencies promote the use of alternatives to animal testing for biomedical research and toxicity testing. Research on such alternatives aims to:

  • Refine procedures to decrease pain and distress.
  • Reduce the number of animals required to provide scientifically valid results.
  • Replace animals with non-animal systems or one animal species with a phylogenetically lower one.
Development of alternative methods is an active area of research. The ALTBIB search tool provides users with access via PubMed to the latest research on in vitro and computational methods to predict toxicity, as well as approaches to refining animal use for study types that still require animals. ALTBIB also provides links to additional resources on alternative methods research and acceptance.