Skip to Main Navigation
Skip to Page Content
Share This:
https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/historical_controls

Historical Controls

NTP has gathered a significant database of results collected on chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity studies, as well as developmental and reproductive studies. To evaluate study results and follow changes in the biology of our test species, we maintain a historical summary of the observations made on the untreated or control groups from individual studies. These data are divided into categories depending on the study type. Due to a variety of factors that can influence response, historical control data may be identified by:

  • Species
  • Sex
  • Route of administration
  • Vehicle
  • Study type
  • Laboratory
History of Rat Models Used by NTP

Commentary: Update on Animal Models for NTP Studies contains a thorough discussion on rat strain selection considerations. The following history summarizes part of the discussion.

For more than 30 years, NTP used the inbred F344/N rat for toxicity and carcinogenicity studies. Over time, this substrain developed decreased fecundity, sporadic seizures, and idiopathic chylothorax. The F344/N possessed other health issues inherent to the strain including high rates of mononuclear cell leukemia and testicular neoplasia.

In 2005, NTP held the NTP Workshop: Animal Models for the NTP Rodent Cancer Bioassay: Stocks and Strains—Should we Switch? Workshop participants recommended three options to NTP:

  • Establish another colony of the F344 rat from another source
  • Use a F1 hybrid
  • Use an outbred stock of rat such as the Wistar Han or the Sprague Dawley

NTP temporarily switched to the F344/NTac rat and then selected the Wistar Han rat [Crl:WI (Han)]. However, in several studies with perinatal exposure, the average litter sizes were smaller than expected, the litters had a high variability in sex distribution, and pregnancy rates in time mated Wistar Han rats were not acceptable.

Consequently, NTP adopted the Sprague Dawley (Hsd:Sprague Dawley SD) rat as the default NTP rat strain. NTP's decision came after much deliberation including consideration of historical data from eight previous NTP cancer studies using the female Sprague Dawley rat, and very favorable data on litter size, sex ratio, and body weight.


Chronic Toxicity & Carcinogenicity Studies

Chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity studies are labeled in the NTP Historical Controls database under study type as "Chronic." Specific information, including pathology tables, body weights, survival curves, and chemicals by sex/species may be viewed from the database. The data for control animals are compiled from the most recent five-year window.

  • Within the pathology tables, tumor incidence is defined as the number of animals exhibiting a tumor type divided by the number of animals examined and is expressed as both raw counts and percent.
  • The pathology tables present the mean and standard deviation of tumor incidence among studies, along with the number of studies summarized.
  • The growth and survival curves present the mean for each route, species, and sex group of control animals along with the 5th and 95th percentile.

Note: The historical controls data for genetically modified models are displayed separately.


Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity Studies

Users can search data related to developmental and reproductive toxicity (DART) studies within the NTP Historical Controls database. The database includes information on fetal defects from stand-alone prenatal development (i.e., teratology) studies or modified one-generation studies (MOG). Files presenting data on fetal findings can be found in the database under "All Routes and Vehicles."

Fetal Findings

In the fetal findings file, under the "Summary" tab, fetal findings (Column C) are further delineated by exam type (Column A), followed by body area (Column B). Data are presented as the number of fetuses or litters with a finding and the percentage calculations are in parentheses.

  • Rows in bold reflect the total number of fetuses or litters per finding. Columns labeled "TOTAL_FETUS" and "TOTAL_LITTER" indicate the total number of findings per fetus and per litter in all studies presented here.
  • Columns labeled "MIN_FETUS," "MIN_LITTER," "MAX_FETUS," and "MAX_LITTER" indicate the minimum and maximum number of fetuses or litters with that finding.

NTP Historical Controls Database

How to search with filtering and sorting

Search for particular tables by filtering or sorting the table. As you begin to type your search entry, the page will filter the table results by text. For example, type "F344" to see Fischer F344/N Rats rows.

To sort the table by a specific column, click the up/down filter arrow in the table header for that column. When clicked, the column headers will sort the table by ascending or descending order. If only one arrow is displayed, that column is sorted in the direction of the arrow. To sort more than one column, click the first column header, and then hold the shift key and click on additional column headers.

Year Posted Study Type Species: Strain Diet Years Study Started All Routes/Vehicles By Route/Vehicle
2018 DART Rats: Hsd:Sprague Dawley SD NIH-07 2012-2013 Fetal Findings (RTI)
2018 DART Rats: Hsd:Sprague Dawley SD NIH-07 2014-2015 Fetal Findings (Southern Research)
2017 Chronic Mice: B6C3F1 NTP-2000 2007-2012 Pathology Tables
Body Weights
Survival Curves
Chemicals by Sex/Species
Pathology Tables
Body Weights
Survival Curves
2017 Chronic Rats: Hsd:Sprague Dawley SD NTP-2000 2007-2012 Pathology Tables
Body Weights
Survival Curves
Chemicals by Sex/Species
Pathology Tables
Body Weights
Survival Curves
2016 Chronic Mice: B6C3F1 NTP-2000 2006-2011 Pathology Tables
Body Weights
Survival Curves
Chemicals by Sex/Species
Pathology Tables
Body Weights
Survival Curves
2016 Chronic Rats: Wistar Han NTP-2000 2007-2009 Pathology Tables
Body Weights
Survival Curves
Chemicals by Sex/Species
Pathology Tables
Body Weights
Survival Curves
2016 Chronic Rats: Harlan Sprague-Dawley NTP-2000 2007-2011 Pathology Tables
Body Weights
Survival Curves
Chemicals by Sex/Species
Pathology Tables
Body Weights
Survival Curves

Download Earlier Historical Controls

2015-2014
Year Posted/Study Type Species: Strain Diet Years Study Started All Routes/Vehicles By Route/Vehicle Growth Curves By Route/Vehicle Survival By Route/Vehicle
2015/Chronic Rats: Wistar Han NTP-2000 Note: See tables posted in 2014 as no new rat studies were added.
2014/Chronic Rats: Wistar Han NTP-2000 2007-2008 Pathology Tables for All Routes/Vehicles
Body Weights for All Routes/Vehicles
Survival Curves for All Routes/Vehicles
Chemicals by Sex/Species/Route/Vehicle
Pathology Tables by Route/Vehicle
Gavage/Corn Oil
Gavage/Water
Inhalation/Air
Gavage/Corn Oil
Gavage/Water
Inhalation/Air
 
Gavage/Corn Oil
Gavage/Water
Inhalation/Air
 
2014/Chronic Mice: B6C3F1 NTP-2000 2004-2008 Pathology Tables for All Routes/Vehicles
Body Weights for All Routes/Vehicles
Survival Curves for All Routes/Vehicles
Chemicals by Sex/Species/Route/Vehicle
Pathology Tables by Route/Vehicle
Skin Application/Acetone
Skin Application/Ethanol
Gavage/Corn Oil
Gavage/Water
Inhalation/Air
Oral/Water
Skin Application/Acetone
Skin Application/Ethanol
Gavage/Corn Oil
Gavage/Water
Inhalation/Air
Oral/Water
 
Skin Application/Acetone
Skin Application/Ethanol
Gavage/Corn Oil
Gavage/Water
Inhalation/Air
Oral/Water
2013
Year Posted/Study Type Species: Strain Diet Years Study Started All Routes/Vehicles By Route/Vehicle Growth Curves By Route/Vehicle Survival By Route/Vehicle
2013/Chronic Rats: Fischer344N NTP-2000 2003-2005 Pathology Tables for All Routes/Vehicles
Body Weights for All Routes/Vehicles
Survival Curves for All Routes/Vehicles
Chemicals by Sex/Species/Route/Vehicle
Pathology Tables by Route/Vehicle
Skin Application/Acetone
Skin Application/Ethanol
Gavage/Corn Oil
Gavage/Methyl Cellulose
Gavage/Water
Inhalation/Air
Oral/Feed
Oral/Water
Skin Application/Acetone
Skin Application/Ethanol
Gavage/Corn Oil
Gavage/Methyl Cellulose
Gavage/Water
Inhalation/Air
Oral/Feed
Oral/Water
 
Skin Application/Acetone
Skin Application/Ethanol
Gavage/Corn Oil
Gavage/Methyl Cellulose
Gavage/Water
Inhalation/Air
Oral/Feed
Oral/Water
2013/Chronic Rats: Fischer 344/NTac NTP-2000 2006 Pathology Tables for All Routes/Vehicles
Body Weights for All Routes/Vehicles
Survival Curves for All Routes/Vehicles
Chemicals by Sex/Species/Route/Vehicle
Pathology Tables by Route/Vehicle
Inhalation/Air
Oral/Water
 
Inhalation/Air
Oral/Water
 
Inhalation/Air
Oral/Water
 
2013/Chronic Rats: Wistar Han NTP-2000 2007-2008 Pathology Tables for All Routes/Vehicles
Body Weights for All Routes/Vehicles
Survival Curves for All Routes/Vehicles
Chemicals by Sex/Species/Route/Vehicle
Pathology Tables by Route/Vehicle
Gavage/Corn Oil
Gavage/Water
Inhalation/Air
Gavage/Corn Oil
Gavage/Water
Inhalation/Air
 
Gavage/Corn Oil
Gavage/Water
Inhalation/Air
 
2013/Chronic Rats: Harlan Sprague-Dawley NTP-2000 2004-2007 Pathology Tables for All Routes/Vehicles
Body Weights for All Routes/Vehicles
Survival Curves for All Routes/Vehicles
Chemicals by Sex/Species/Route/Vehicle
Pathology Tables by Route/Vehicle
Gavage/Corn Oil
 
Gavage/Corn Oil
 
Gavage/Corn Oil
 
2013/Chronic Mice: B6C3F1 NTP-2000 2003-2008 Pathology Tables for All Routes/Vehicles
Body Weights for All Routes/Vehicles
Survival Curves for All Routes/Vehicles
Chemicals by Sex/Species/Route/Vehicle
Pathology Tables by Route/Vehicle
Skin Application/Acetone
Skin Application/Ethanol
Gavage/Corn Oil
Gavage/Methyl Cellulose
Gavage/Water
Inhalation/Air
Oral/Water
 
Skin Application/Acetone
Skin Application/Ethanol
Gavage/Corn Oil
Gavage/Methyl Cellulose
Gavage/Water
Inhalation/Air
Oral/Water
 
Skin Application/Acetone
Skin Application/Ethanol
Gavage/Corn Oil
Gavage/Methyl Cellulose
Gavage/Water
Inhalation/Air
Oral/Water
 
2011
Year Posted/Study Type Species: Strain Diet Years Study Started All Routes/Vehicles By Route/Vehicle Growth Curves By Route/Vehicle Survival By Route/Vehicle
2011/Chronic Rats: Fischer F344/N NTP-2000 2002-2005 Pathology Tables for All Routes/Vehicles
Body Weights for All Routes/Vehicles
Survival Curves for All Routes/Vehicles
Chemicals by Sex/Species/Route/Vehicle
Pathology Tables by Route/Vehicle
Gavage/Corn Oil
Gavage/Methyl Cellulose
Gavage/Water
Inhalation/Air
Oral/Feed
Oral/Water
Skin Application/Acetone
Skin Application/Ethanol

Perinatal and Postnatal:
Oral/Feed
Gavage/Corn Oil
Gavage/Methyl Cellulose
Gavage/Water
Inhalation/Air
Oral/Feed
Oral/Water
Oral/Feed
Skin Application/Acetone
Skin Application/Ethanol

Perinatal and Postnatal:
Oral/Feed
Gavage/Corn Oil
Gavage/Methyl Cellulose
Gavage/Water
Inhalation/Air
Oral/Feed
Oral/Water
Skin Application/Acetone
Skin Application/Ethanol

Perinatal and Postnatal:
Oral/Feed
2011/Chronic Rats: Harlan Sprague-Dawley NTP-2000 2003-2004 Pathology Tables for All Routes/Vehicles
Body Weights for All Routes/Vehicles
Survival Curves for All Routes/Vehicles
Chemicals by Sex/Species/Route/Vehicle
Pathology Tables by Route/Vehicle
Gavage/Corn Oil
Gavage/Corn Oil Gavage/Corn Oil
2011/Chronic Mice: B6C3F1 NTP-2000 2002-2005 Pathology Tables for All Routes/Vehicles
Body Weights for All Routes/Vehicles
Survival Curves for All Routes/Vehicles
Chemicals by Sex/Species/Route/Vehicle
Pathology Tables by Route/Vehicle
Gavage/Corn Oil
Gavage/Methyl Cellulose
Gavage/Water
Inhalation/Air
Oral/Feed
Oral/Water
Skin Application/Ethanol
Gavage/Corn Oil
Gavage/Methyl Cellulose
Gavage/Water
Inhalation/Air
Oral/Feed
Oral/Water
Skin Application/Ethanol
 
Gavage/Corn Oil
Gavage/Methyl Cellulose
Gavage/Water
Inhalation/Air
Oral/Feed
Oral/Water
Skin Application/Ethanol
 
2010
Year Posted/Study Type Species: Strain Diet Years Study Started All Routes/Vehicles By Route/Vehicle Growth Curves By Route/Vehicle Survival By Route/Vehicle
2010/Chronic Rats: Fischer F344/N NTP-2000 2001-2005 Pathology Tables for All Routes/Vehicles
Body Weights for All Routes/Vehicles
Survival Curves for All Routes/Vehicles
Chemicals by Sex/Species/Route/Vehicle
Pathology Tables by Route/Vehicle
Gavage/Corn Oil
Gavage/Methyl Cellulose
Gavage/Water
Inhalation/Air
Oral/Feed
Oral/Water
Skin Application/Acetone
Skin Application/Ethanol
 
Gavage/Corn Oil
Gavage/Methyl Cellulose
Gavage/Water
Inhalation/Air
Oral/Feed
Oral/Water
Skin Application/Acetone
Skin Application/Ethanol
 
Gavage/Corn Oil
Gavage/Methyl Cellulose
Gavage/Water
Inhalation/Air
Oral/Feed
Oral/Water
Skin Application/Acetone
Skin Application/Ethanol
 
2010/Chronic Mice: B6C3F1 NTP-2000 2001-2004 Pathology Tables for All Routes/Vehicles
Body Weights for All Routes/Vehicles
Survival Curves for All Routes/Vehicles
Chemicals by Sex/Species/Route/Vehicle
Pathology Tables by Route/Vehicle
Gavage/Corn Oil
Gavage/Methyl Cellulose
Gavage/Water
Inhalation/Air
Oral/Feed
Oral/Water
Skin Application/Ethanol
Gavage/Corn Oil
Gavage/Methyl Cellulose
Gavage/Water
Inhalation/Air
Oral/Feed
Oral/Water
Skin Application/Ethanol
Gavage/Corn Oil
Gavage/Methyl Cellulose
Gavage/Water
Inhalation/Air
Oral/Feed
Oral/Water
Skin Application/Ethanol
2009
Year Posted/Study Type Species: Strain Diet Years Study Started All Routes/Vehicles By Route/Vehicle Growth Curves By Route/Vehicle Survival By Route/Vehicle
2009/Chronic Rats: Fischer F344/N NTP-2000 2000-2004 Pathology Tables for All Routes/Vehicles
Body Weights for All Routes/Vehicles
Survival Curves for All Routes/Vehicles
Chemicals by Species/Route/Vehicle
Pathology Tables by Route/Vehicle
Gavage/Corn Oil
Gavage/Methyl Cellulose
Gavage/Water
Inhalation/Air
Oral/Feed
Oral/Water
Skin Application/Ethanol
Gavage/Corn Oil
Gavage/Methyl Cellulose
Gavage/Water
Inhalation/Air
Oral/Feed
Oral/Water
Skin Application/Ethanol
Gavage/Corn Oil
Gavage/Methyl Cellulose
Gavage/Water
Inhalation/Air
Oral/Feed
Oral/Water
Skin Application/Ethanol
2009/Chronic Mice: B6C3F1 NTP-2000 2000-2004 Pathology Tables for All Routes/Vehicles
Body Weights for All Routes/Vehicles
Survival Curves for All Routes/Vehicles
Chemicals by Species/Route/Vehicle
Pathology Tables by Route/Vehicle
Gavage/Corn Oil
Gavage/Methyl Cellulose
Gavage/Water
Inhalation/Air
Oral/Feed
Oral/Water
Skin Application/Ethanol
Gavage/Corn Oil
Gavage/Methyl Cellulose
Gavage/Water
Inhalation/Air
Oral/Feed
Oral/Water
Skin Application/Ethanol
Gavage/Corn Oil
Gavage/Methyl Cellulose
Gavage/Water
Inhalation/Air
Oral/Feed
Oral/Water
Skin Application/Ethanol
2008
Year Posted/Study Type Species: Strain Diet Years Study Started All Routes/Vehicles By Route/Vehicle Growth Curves By Route/Vehicle Survival By Route/Vehicle
2008/Chronic Rats: Harlan Sprague-Dawley NTP-2000 1998-2004 Pathology Tables for All Routes/Vehicles
Note: These reports cover more than five years so that all
the Toxic Equivalency Factor studies would be included.
Gavage/Corn Oil Gavage/Corn Oil Gavage/Corn Oil
1999-1998
Year Posted/Study Type Species: Strain Diet Years Study Started All Routes/Vehicles By Route/Vehicle Growth Curves By Route/Vehicle Survival By Route/Vehicle
1999/Chronic Mice: B6C3F1 NIH-07 1984-1994 Pathology Tables for All Routes/Vehicles
Growth Curves for All Routes/Vehicles
Survival Curves for All Routes/Vehicles
Chemicals by Species/Route/Vehicle
Dermal/Acetone
Dermal/Ethanol
Gavage/Corn Oil
Gavage/Methyl Cellulose
Gavage/Water
Inhalation/Air
Oral/Feed
Oral/Water
Subcutaneous/Buffered Serum
Vaginal/Water
Dermal/Acetone
Dermal/Ethanol
Gavage/Corn Oil
Gavage/Methyl Cellulose
Gavage/Water
Inhalation/Air
Oral/Feed
Oral/Water
Subcutaneous/Buffered Serum
Vaginal/Water
Dermal/Acetone
Dermal/Ethanol
Gavage/Corn Oil
Gavage/Methyl Cellulose
Gavage/Water
Inhalation/Air
Oral/Feed
Oral/Water
Subcutaneous/Buffered Serum
Vaginal/Water
1999/Chronic Rats: Fischer F344 NIH-07 1984-1994 Pathology Tables for All Routes/Vehicles
Growth Curves for All Routes/Vehicles
Survival Curves for All Routes/Vehicles
Chemicals by Species/Route/Vehicle
Dermal/Acetone
Dermal/Ethanol
Dermal/Neat
Gavage/Corn Oil
Gavage/Methyl Cellulose
Gavage/Water
Inhalation/Air
Oral/Feed
Oral/Water
Dermal/Acetone
Dermal/Ethanol
Dermal/Neat
Gavage/Corn Oil
Gavage/Methyl Cellulose
Gavage/Water
Inhalation/Air
Oral/Feed
Oral/Water
Dermal/Acetone
Dermal/Ethanol
Dermal/Neat
Gavage/Corn Oil
Gavage/Methyl Cellulose
Gavage/Water
Inhalation/Air
Oral/Feed
Oral/Water
1998/Chronic Mice: B6C3F1 NIH-07   Magnetic Fields/Magnetic Fields Magnetic Fields/Magnetic Fields Magnetic Fields/Magnetic Fields
1998/Chronic Rats: Fischer F344 NIH-07   Magnetic Fields/Magnetic Fields Magnetic Fields/Magnetic Fields Magnetic Fields/Magnetic Fields