Cystic degeneration is characterized by vacuolization and ballooning swelling of epithelial cells, resulting in rupture of cell membranes to form irregular spaces in the epithelium, potentially leading to development of vesicles or bulla. Associated mucosa may be ulcerated, and epithelial cells may be degenerate or necrotic. Subjacent tissue is variably infiltrated by inflammatory cells. This change may represent a progression of vacuolar degeneration and can be observed in studies involving gavage methods. This lesion may also be due to ulcerogenic or anti-inflammatory compounds.
Bulla are characterized as a localized collection of fluid in or beneath the epithelial layer. Vesicles are <1 cm and bulla are ≥ 1.0 cm. Bulla can form as the result of acantholysis, epidermal or dermal edema, degeneration of basal cells and keratinocytes, or other processes, such as frictional trauma and burns that cause a lack of cohesion between cells. Bulla can lead to erosions and ulceration.
Beattie D. 1977. Effect of drugs on rats exposed to cold-restraint-stress. J Pharm Pharmacol 29:748-751.Abstract: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.2042-7158.1977.tb11454.x/abstract
Bertram TA, Markovits JE, Juliana MM. 1996. Non-proliferative lesions of the alimentary canal in rats GI-1. In Guides for Toxicologic Pathology. STP/ARP/AFIP, Washington, DC, 1-16.Full Text: https://www.toxpath.org/docs/SSNDC/GINonproliferativeRat.pdf
Boyd EM, Cehm CP, Muis LF. 1970. Resistance to starvation in albino rats fed from weaning on diets containing from 0 to 81% of protein as casein. Growth 34:99-112.Abstract: http://www.cabdirect.org/abstracts/19711400619.html
Hargis AM, Ginn PE. 2007. The integument. In: Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease, 4th ed (McGavin MD, Zachary JF, ed). Mosby, St Louis, MO, 1107-1261.
Myers RK, McGavin MD. 2007. Cellular and tissue responses to injury. In: Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease, 4th ed (McGavin MD, Zachary JF, eds). Mosby, St Louis, MO, 3-62.
National Toxicology Program. 1986. NTP TR-257. Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Diglycidyl Resorcinol Ether (Technical Grade) (CAS No. 101-90-6) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Studies). NTP, Research Triangle Park, NC.Abstract: https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/8568
Puurunen J, Huttunen P, Hirvonen H. 1980. Is ethanol-induced damage of the gastric mucosa a hyperosmotic effect? Comparative studies on the effects of ethanol, some other hyperosmotic solutions, and acetyl-salicylic acid on rat gastric mucosa. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Copenh) 47:321-327.Abstract: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1600-0773.1980.tb01567.x/abstract
Satoh H, Inada I, Hirata T, Mak Y. 1970. Indomethacin produces gastric antral ulcers in the refed rat. Gastroenterology 81:719-725.Abstract: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7262516