In NTP studies, there are five standard categories of inflammation: acute, suppurative, chronic, chronic-active, and granulomatous. Acute inflammation is characterized by infiltration of neutrophils (Figure 1 and Figure 2), which may be accompanied by eosinophils and macrophages, and occasional mast cells, lymphocytes, and plasma cells. Suppurative inflammation is characterized by discrete pockets of degenerate neutrophils and cellular debris. There may be evidence of chronicity, such as fibrosis and lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates, surrounding these pockets. Chronic inflammation is characterized by the presence of mononuclear cells (lymphocytes, macrophages, and plasma cells) and may be accompanied by fibrosis. Chronic-active inflammation is characterized by coexistence of elements of chronic inflammation (lymphocytes, macrophages, fibrosis) and superimposed acute inflammation (neutrophilic and/or eosinophilic infiltrates). Granulomatous inflammation is characterized by accumulations of macrophages, multinucleated giant cells, and variable numbers of lymphocytes and plasma cells, or neutrophils. Inflammation is differentiated from cellular infiltrates by the presence of other changes, such as edema, hemorrhage, degeneration, necrosis, or other evidence of tissue damage.
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