Turbinate synechia is diagnosed when there is adhesion of one turbinate to another turbinate (Figure 1, Figure 2, and Figure 3), to another part of the same turbinate, to the lateral wall (Figure 4), or, less commonly, to the nasal septum. Synechia is typically a sequela to chronic nasal lesions with epithelial ulceration or other mucosal inflammatory, degenerative/necrotic, regenerative/hyperplastic, or metaplastic lesions. Most synechiae tend to involve the maxilloturbinates and nasoturbinates, but synechia of the ethmoid turbinates does occur.
Synechiae are almost never seen in control animals and can be an indicator of the chronicity of necrotic, ulcerative, or inflammatory epithelial lesions and should therefore be diagnosed whenever they are observed. Synechiae should not be graded. Any accompanying lesions, such as inflammation, fibrosis, or epithelial ulceration, degeneration, or necrosis, should be diagnosed separately.
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