(Figure 1 and Figure 2). The acinar outline is distorted by enlarged (hypertrophic) epithelial cells that may contain eosinophilic granular material (asterisks, Figure 2). The hypertrophic area may marginally compress the adjoining glands. Glandular hyperplasia is age related. Ductular hyperplasia is characterized by increased thickness of ductal squamous epithelium that often forms an anastomosing trabecular pattern (arrows, Figure 3). Occasionally, ductular and acinar hyperplasias may be seen in the same gland. Ductular hyperplasia is common in aged rodents and may be a precursor to squamous cell carcinoma.
Acinar hyperplasia is considered preneoplastic and should be differentiated from adenomas. In acinar hyperplasia, the acini appear larger than normal, with some crowding. Preputial glandular adenomas are more circumscribed and are associated with compression of adjacent tissue, and cellular organization with acini may be irregular. Likewise, ductular hyperplasia should be distinguished from squamous cell papillomas. The latter may form papillae supported by connective tissue cores and may have interconnecting cords of proliferative squamous epithelium.
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