Figure 4 and Figure 5 depict a commonly overlooked subtle and early form of neuronal injury known as “granulovacuolar change.” The perikaryon is slightly swollen and contains small vacuoles and granularity (arrowheads), suggesting membrane injury and distension of the cytoplasmic organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. In these images, it is accompanied by other ancillary evidence of neuronal injury, such as central chromatolysis (black arrows) and genuine basophilic “chronic” nerve cell change (white arrows). Various stages of neuronal and astrocytic degeneration as documented by light and electron microscopy are available in a sequenced study by Cavanagh et al. (1998) of the effects of a mycotoxin on the rat cerebellum.
Cavanagh JB, Holton JL, Nolan CC, Ray DE, Naik JT, Mantle PG. 1998. The effects of the tremorgenic mycotoxin penitrem A on the rat cerebellum. Vet Pathol 35:53-63.Abstract: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9545135
Colman JR, Nowocin KJ, Switzer RC, Trusk TC, Ramsdell JS. 2005. Mapping and reconstruction of domoic acid-induced neurodegeneration in the mouse brain. Neurotoxicol Teratol 27:753-767.Abstract: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16109471