While edema can occur as a primary lesion (Figure 1, Figure 2, Figure 3, and Figure 4), it most commonly occurs secondary to necrosis and inflammation; regions of hemorrhage are often accompanied by edema. Intramuscular edema can be seen in association with autoimmune conditions, such as polymyositis and dermatomyositis; mild injuries; infectious myositis; subacute denervation; compartment syndrome; and rhabdomyolysis; it can also be seen as a transient, physiologic finding during and briefly following muscle exercise.
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