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Stomach, Glandular Stomach - Necrosis

Image of necrosis in the glandular stomach from a female B6C3F1 mouse in a subchronic study
Stomach, Glandular stomach - Necrosis in a female B6C3F1 mouse from a subchronic study. There is loss of glandular epithelial cells within the mucosa.
Figure 1 of 4
Image of necrosis in the glandular stomach from a female B6C3F1 mouse in a subchronic study
Stomach, Glandular stomach - Necrosis in a female B6C3F1 mouse from a subchronic study (higher magnification of Figure 1). There is loss of glandular epithelial cells and scattered pyknotic debris within the mucosa.
Figure 2 of 4
Image of necrosis in the glandular stomach from a male F344/N rat in a chronic study
Stomach, Glandular stomach - Necrosis in a male F344/N rat from a chronic study. There is a thrombosed vessel in the submucosa (arrow), resulting in an area of necrosis (infarct) with hemorrhage.
Figure 3 of 4
Image of necrosis in the glandular stomach from a male F344/N rat in a chronic study
Stomach, Glandular stomach - Necrosis in a male F344/N rat from a chronic study. There is a thrombosed vessel in the submucosa (arrow), resulting in a well-demarcated area of necrosis (infarct) involving the mucosa and submucosa.
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comment:

Necrosis is characterized by nuclear changes of pyknosis, karyorrhexis, karyolysis, or absence of nucleus in the later stage of karyolysis. The cytoplasm in early necrosis is homogeneous pink in H&E sections. Degradation of cytoplasmic proteins eventually gives the necrotic cell a pale, ghostlike appearance. Necrotic cells usually lose their adherence to basement membranes and neighboring cells. Rupture of cells with loss of cell integrity is the most obvious evidence of cell death. Necrosis can involve scattered necrotic cells throughout the mucosa ( Figure 1image opens in a pop-up window and Figure 2image opens in a pop-up window , arrows) or a focal area involving the mucosa and/or muscular wall. Thrombosis ( Figure 3image opens in a pop-up window and Figure 4image opens in a pop-up window , arrows) can result in necrosis of the stomach mucosa ( Figure 3image opens in a pop-up window ) or both the mucosa and the wall of the stomach ( Figure 4image opens in a pop-up window ).

recommendation:

Necrosis of epithelium is diagnosed instead of erosion and ulcer if the necrotic epithelium is still present and at least partially attached to the underlying lamina propria or if the necrosis is not particularly centered on the epithelium of the glandular stomach (i.e., involves the wall primarily). If the necrosis is consistent with ischemia secondary to thrombosis (infarction), necrosis should be diagnosed (rather than infarct), but the narrative should state that the lesion is consistent with an infarct, even if the thrombus is not in the plane of the section. Severity grading would depend on the overall size of the lesion and number of areas affected. Secondary lesions, such as hemorrhage, edema, fibrosis, or inflammation, are usually not diagnosed separately unless they are prominent components of the lesion. They should, however, be described in the narrative.

references:

Brown HR, Hardisty JF. 1990. Oral cavity, esophagus and stomach. In: Pathology of the Fischer Rat (Boorman GA, Montgomery CA, MacKenzie WF, eds). Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 9-30.
Abstract: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/9002563

Myers RK, McGavin MD. 2007. Cellular and tissue responses to injury. In: Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease, 4th ed (McGavin MD, Zachary JF, eds). Mosby, St Louis, MO, 3-62.

National Toxicology Program. 1992. NTP TR-399. Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Titanocene Dichloride (CAS No. 1271-19-8) in F344/N Rats (Gavage Studies). NTP, Research Triangle Park, NC.
Abstract: http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/12249

NTP is located at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, part of the National Institutes of Health.