Heart - Atrophy

Image of atrophy in the heart from a male B6C3F1/N mouse in a chronic study
Heart - Atrophy in a male B6C3F1/N mouse from a chronic study. Thinning of the right ventricular wall (arrow) and interventricular septum (arrowheads) is present.
Figure 1 of 2
Image of atrophy in the heart from a male B6C3F1/N mouse in a chronic study
Heart - Atrophy in a male B6C3F1/N mouse from a chronic study (higher magnification of Figure 1). Atrophy is present in the right ventricular wall (arrow) and interventricular septum (arrowheads).
Figure 2 of 2
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comment:

Atrophy of an entire organ is typically a gross diagnosis and may be confirmed with a decrease in organ weight. Histologically, cardiac atrophy is characterized by ventricular wall thinning and a decrease in cardiomyocyte cell size ( Figure 1image opens in a pop-up window  and Figure 2image opens in a pop-up window ). An observed decrease in cell size may be perceived as an increase in nuclear density. The exact mechanism of cardiomyocyte atrophy in the absence of concomitant degenerative disease is unknown but may be demonstrated in the mouse or rat via mechanical unloading or reduced hemodynamic demand.

recommendation:

Heart - Atrophy should be recorded and graded based on the extent and distribution of the lesion. The location (e.g., atrium, ventricle) should be described in the narrative.

references:

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Abstract: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1826234

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Abstract: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18407290

Jokinen MP, Lieuallen WG, Johnson CL, Dunnick J, Nyska A. 2005. Characterization of spontaneous and chemically induced cardiac lesions in rodent model systems: The National Toxicology Program experience. Cardiovasc Toxicol 5:227-244.
Abstract: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16046796

McKenzie WF, Alison R. 1990. Heart. In: Pathology of the Fischer Rat: Reference and Atlas (Boorman GA, Eustis SL, Elwell MR, Montgomery CA, MacKenzie WF, eds). Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 461-472.

Percy DH, Barthold SW. 2007. Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits, 3rd ed. Blackwell, Ames, IA, 152-153.

Razeghi P, Baskin KK, Sharma S, Young ME, Stepkowski S, Essop MF, Taegtmeyer H. 2006. Atrophy, hypertrophy, and hypoxemia induce transcriptional regulators of the ubiquitin proteasome system in the rat heart. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 342:361-364.
Abstract: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16483544

Razeghi P, Volpini KC, Wang ME, Youker KA, Stepkowski S, Taegtmeyer H. 2007. Mechanical unloading of the heart activates the calpain system. J Mol Cell Cardiol 42:449-452.
Abstract: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17027024

Van Vleet JF, Ferrans VJ. 2007. Cardiovascular system. In: Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease, 4th ed (McGavin MD, Zachary JF, eds). Mosby, St. Louis, MO, 575-584.

Van Vleet JF, Ferrans VJ, Herman E. 2010. Cardiovascular and skeletal muscle systems. In: Handbook of Toxicologic Pathology, 2nd ed (Haschek WM, Rousseaux CG, Wallig MA, eds). Academic Press, New York, 335-346.

Zhu W, Shou W, Payne RM, Caldwell R, Field LJ. 2008. A mouse model for juvenile doxorubicin-induced cardiac dysfunction. Pediatr Res 64:488-494.
Abstract: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18614963