Liver, Hepatocyte - Karyomegaly

Image of karyomegaly in the liver from a male  B6C3F1 mouse in a subchronic study
Karyomegaly in a female B6C3F1 mouse from a subchronic study.
Figure 1 of 2
Image of karyomegaly in the liver from a male  B6C3F1 mouse in a subchronic study
Karyomegaly in a female B6C3F1 mouse from a subchronic study. Arrow indicates enlargement of hepatocyte cytoplasm and nucleus.
Figure 2 of 2
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comment:

Though karyomegaly is predominantly a nuclear change, Figure 1image opens in a pop-up window and Figure 2image opens in a pop-up window (arrow) show enlargement of both hepatocyte cytoplasm and nuclei. The change is throughout the hepatic lobule but is more prominent in the centrilobular areas. The increase in nuclear size is consistent with polyploidy, but in this subchronic study, the severity is significantly greater than one would expect at this age (~4.5 months). Although a liver weight increase was associated with enlarged hepatocytes in this study, the nonuniform hepatocyte enlargement plus the karyomegaly distinguish this change from hepatocyte enzyme induction. Spontaneous occurrence of karyocytomegaly is commonly seen in aging rodents and is not typically associated with increased liver weight. This aging change, often referred to as polyploidy, is more common in mice than in rats.

recommendation:

While some degree of nuclear enlargement is frequently seen in mice, particularly as an aging change, the degree of nuclear enlargement and the accompanying enlargement of hepatocytes shown in Figure 1image opens in a pop-up window and Figure 2image opens in a pop-up window are not typically seen in control mice in prechronic studies. In this case it is a potential treatment effect and should be diagnosed and given a severity grade. It is typically not documented in chronic studies unless there is an obvious treatment-associated increase or decrease compared with concurrent controls. If the cytoplasm is enlarged but the nuclei are not, then the term “hypertrophy” should be used.

references:

Epstein CJ. 1967. Cell size, nuclear content, and the development of polyploidy in the mammalian liver. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 57:327-334.
Full Text: http://www.pnas.org/content/57/2/327.full.pdf

Harada T, Enomoto A, Boorman GA, Maronpot RR. 1999. Liver and gallbladder. In: Pathology of the Mouse: Reference and Atlas (Maronpot RR, Boorman GA, Gaul BW, eds). Cache River Press, Vienna, IL, 119-183.
Abstract: http://www.cacheriverpress.com/books/pathmouse.htm

Inamdar NB. 1958. Development of polyploidy in mouse liver. J Morphol 103:65-90.
Abstract: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jmor.1051030104/abstract

James J. 1977. The genesis of polyploidy in rat liver parenchymal cells. Eur J Cell Biol 15:410-419.
Abstract: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00482955

Lu MH, Hinson WG, He D, Turturro A, Hart RW. 1993. Hepatic nuclear ploidy distribution of dietary-restricted mice. Environ Health Perspect 101:229-233.
Abstract: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8013412

National Toxicology Program. 1993. NTP TR-394. Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Acetaminophen (CAS No. 103-90-2) in F344 Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Feed Studies). NTP, Research Triangle Park, NC.
Full Text: http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/htdocs/LT_rpts/tr394.pdf

Styles JA. 1993. Measurement of ploidy and cell proliferation in the rodent liver. Environ Health Perspect 101(suppl 5):67-71.
Abstract: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1519461/

Thoolen B, Maronpot RR, Harada T, Nyska A, Rousseaux C, Nolte T, Malarkey D, Kaufmann W, Kutter K, Deschl U, Nakae D, Gregson R, Winlove M, Brix A, Singl B, Belpoggi F, Ward JM. 2010. Hepatobiliary lesion nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for lesions in rats and mice (INHAND). Toxicol Pathol 38:5S-81S.
Full Text: http://tpx.sagepub.com/content/38/7_suppl/5S.full