Liver - Pigment

Image of pigment in the liver from a male  B6C3F1 mouse in a subchronic study
Pigment in hepatocytes in a male B6C3F1 mouse from a subchronic study.
Figure 1 of 4
Image of pigment in the liver from a female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rat in a chronic study
Pigment in hepatocytes in a male Harlan Sprague-Dawley rat from a chronic study.
Figure 2 of 4
Image of pigment in the liver from a female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rat in a chronic study
Pigment in hepatocytes in a male Harlan Sprague-Dawley rat from a chronic study.
Figure 3 of 4
Image of pigment in the liver from a female Wistar Han rat in a subchronic study
Pigment in hepatocytes in a female Wistar Han rat from a subchronic study.
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comment:

Both endogenous and exogenous pigment can occur in hepatocytes, but pigmentation occurs more often in Kupffer cells. Pigment may be prominent in portal areas. Identification of hepatic pigment typically requires multiple special stains. Different pigments frequently contain some iron and will thus have variable positivity with Prussian blue stain. In Figure 1image opens in a pop-up window , pigment is deposited in clusters of aggregated Kupffer cells, which was given a severity grade of 3+ (moderate). Figure 2image opens in a pop-up window and Figure 3image opens in a pop-up window show evidence of pigment deposition in Kupffer cells as well as in hepatocytes. The pigment deposition is primarily centrilobular and was given a severity grade of 3+ (moderate). In Figure 4image opens in a pop-up window , the pigment deposition is primarily within hepatocytes and has a panlobular distribution.

recommendation:

Definitive pigment identification is often difficult in histologic sections, even with a battery of special stains. Therefore, a diagnosis of “pigment” is most appropriate. The pathology narrative should describe the morphologic features of the pigmentation, the lobular distribution, the cell type affected, and any accompanying histologic changes that might be associated with the pigment deposition. The pathologist may also speculate in the pathology narrative as to the type of pigment present. A severity grade should be assigned based on the relative amounts of pigment present.

references:

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Eustis SL, Boorman GA, Harada T, Popp JA. 1990. Liver. In: Pathology of the Fischer Rat (Boorman GA, Eustis SL, Elwell MR, Montgomery CA, MacKenzie WF, eds). Academic Press, San Diego, 71-94.
Abstract: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/9002563

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Abstract: http://www.cacheriverpress.com/books/pathmouse.htm

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Full Text: http://tpx.sagepub.com/content/33/1/35.full.pdf

Haschek WM, Rousseaux CG, Wallig MA. 2010. Fundamentals of Toxicologic Pathology, 2nd ed. Academic Press, San Diego, 197-235.
Abstract: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/book/9780123704696

National Toxicology Program. 1993. NTP TR-394. Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Acetaminophen (CAS No. 103-90-2) in F344 Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Feed Studies). NTP, Research Triangle Park, NC.
Full Text: http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/htdocs/LT_rpts/tr394.pdf

Thoolen B, Maronpot RR, Harada T, Nyska A, Rousseaux C, Nolte T, Malarkey D, Kaufmann W, Kutter K, Deschl U, Nakae D, Gregson R, Winlove M, Brix A, Singl B, Belpoggi F, Ward JM. 2010. Hepatobiliary lesion nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for lesions in rats and mice (INHAND). Toxicol Pathol 38:5S-81S.
Full Text: http://tpx.sagepub.com/content/38/7_suppl/5S.full