Preputial Gland - Inflammation

Image of inflammation in the preputial gland from a male F344/N rat in a chronic study
Preputial Gland - Inflammation. Asterisk indicates cellular exudates in a male F344/N rat from a chronic study.
Figure 1 of 4
Image of inflammation in the preputial gland from a male F344/N rat in a chronic study
Preputial Gland - Inflammation. Higher magnification of Figure 1. Asterisk indicates cellular exudates in a male F344/N rat from a chronic study.
Figure 2 of 4
Image of inflammation in the preputial gland from a male B6C3F1 mouse in a chronic study
Preputial Gland - Inflammation. Asterisk indicates cellular exudates in a male B6C3F1 mouse from a chronic study.
Figure 3 of 4
Image of inflammation in the preputial gland from a male B6C3F1 mouse in a chronic study
Preputial Gland - Inflammation. Higher magnification of Figure 3. Asterisk indicates cellular exudates in a male B6C3F1 mouse from a chronic study.
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comment:

Preputial gland inflammation consists of infiltration of abundant cellular exudates (asterisks, Figure 1image opens in a pop-up window , Figure 2image opens in a pop-up window , Figure 3image opens in a pop-up window , and Figure 4image opens in a pop-up window ) in the gland and the ducts. The inflammation can be suppurative ( Figure 1image opens in a pop-up window and Figure 2image opens in a pop-up window ) or chronic/chronic-active ( Figure 3image opens in a pop-up window and Figure 4image opens in a pop-up window ). Inflammation is common, particularly in older animals. This lesion can be focal, multifocal, or diffuse and may involve one or both glands.

NTP studies have five standard categories of inflammation: acute, suppurative, chronic, chronic-active, and granulomatous. In acute inflammation, the predominant infiltrating cell is the neutrophil, though fewer macrophages and lymphocytes may also be present. There may also be evidence of edema or hyperemia. The neutrophil is also the predominant infiltrating cell type in suppurative inflammation, but they are aggregated, and many of them are degenerate (suppurative exudate). Cell debris from both the resident cell populations and infiltrating leukocytes, proteinaceous fluid containing fibrin, fewer macrophages, occasional lymphocytes or plasma cells, and, possibly, an infectious agent may also be present in the exudate. Grossly, these lesions would be characterized by the presence of pus. The tissue surrounding the exudate may have fibroblasts, fibrous connective tissue, and mixed inflammatory cells, depending on the chronicity of the lesion. Lymphocytes predominate in chronic inflammation. Lymphocytes also predominate in chronic-active inflammation, but there are also a significant number of neutrophils. Both lesions may contain macrophages. Granulomatous inflammation is another form of chronic inflammation, but this diagnosis requires the presence of a significant number of aggregated, large, activated macrophages, epithelioid macrophages, or multinucleated giant cells.

recommendation:

Inflammation of the preputial gland should be recorded, classified, and graded. If both glands are involved, the diagnosis should be clarified as bilateral and the severity based on the more severely affected gland.

references:

Boorman GA, Elwell MR, Mitsumori K. 1990. Male accessory sex glands, penis, and scrotum. In: Pathology of the Fischer Rat: Reference and Atlas (Boorman GA, Eustis SL, Elwell MR, Montgomery CA, MacKenzie WF, eds). Academic Press, San Diego, 419-428.
Abstract: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/9002563

Dixon D, Heider K, Elwell MR. 1995. Incidence of nonneoplastic lesions in historical control male and female Fischer-344 rats from 90-day toxicity studies. Toxicol Pathol 23:338-348.
Abstract: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7659956

Gordon LR, Majka JA, Boorman GA. 1996. Spontaneous nonneoplastic and neoplastic lesions and experimentally induced neoplasms of the testes and accessory sex glands. In: Pathobiology of the Aging Mouse, Vol 1 (Mohr U, Dungworth DL, Capen CC, Carlton WW, Sundberg JP, Ward JM, eds). ILSI Press, Washington, DC, 421-441.
Abstract: http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008994685

Haines DC, Eustis SL. 1990. Specialized sebaceous glands. In: Pathology of the Fischer Rat: Reference and Atlas (Boorman GA, Eustis SL, Elwell MR, Montgomery CA, MacKenzie WF, eds). Academic Press, San Diego, 279-293.
Abstract: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/9002563

Lipman RD, Chrisp CE, Hazzard DG, Bronson RT. 1996. Pathologic characterization of brown Norway, brown Norway x Fischer 344, and Fischer 344 x brown Norway rats with relation to age. J Gerontol Biol Sci 51A:B54-B59.
Abstract: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8548501

Radaelli E, Manarolla G, Pisoni G, Balloi A, Aresu L, Sparaciaria P, Maggi A, Caniatti M, Scanziani E. 2010. Suppurative adenitis of preputial glands associated with Corynebacterium mastitidis infection in mice. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 49:69-74.
Abstract: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20122320

Rudmann D, Cardiff R, Chouinard L, Goodman D, Kuttler K, Marxfeld H, Molinolo A, Treumann S, Yoshizawa K. 2012. Proliferative and nonproliferative lesions of the rat and mouse mammary, Zymbal's, preputial, and clitoral glands. Toxicol Pathol 40:7S-39S.
Abstract: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22949413