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Skeletal Muscle - Hypertrophy

Image of hypertrophy in the skeletal muscle from a male Harlan Sprague-Dawley rat in a subchronic study
Skeletal muscle - Hypertrophy in a male Harlan Sprague-Dawley rat from a subchronic study. Large, hypertrophic fibers (arrows) are adjacent to longitudinally split muscle fibers (arrowheads).
Figure 1 of 2
Image of hypertrophy in the skeletal muscle from a male Harlan Sprague-Dawley rat in a subchronic study
Skeletal muscle - Hypertrophy in a male Harlan Sprague-Dawley rat from a subchronic study (higher magnification of Figure 1). Large, hypertrophic fibers (arrows) are adjacent to longitudinally split muscle fibers (arrowheads).
Figure 2 of 2
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comment:

Skeletal muscle hypertrophy is characterized histologically by an increase in myofiber diameter. This can sometimes be difficult to detect histologically. Hypertrophy occurs as a result of increased workload and can occur either focally, as a compensatory reaction following the loss or atrophy of surrounding muscle, or more extensively, as a physiologic response to increased exercise demands. In addition, diffuse hypertrophy can occur in response to prolonged exposure to excessive growth factors, such as growth hormones or growth-promoting xenobiotics.

Myofibers undergoing compensatory hypertrophy due to a myopathic or neuropathic disorder can reach diameters up to twice that of fibers that have undergone physiologic hypertrophy. These fibers are often abnormal and can contain one or more internal nuclei, undergo longitudinal splitting ( Figure 1image opens in a pop-up window and Figure 2image opens in a pop-up window ), and/or exhibit bizarre cytoarchitectural alterations, such as clefting and whorling. In these instances, individual hypertrophic myofibers are often interspersed among atrophic ones.

recommendation:

Whenever present, hypertrophy should be diagnosed and graded. When hypertrophy occurs within an area of atrophy, it should not be diagnosed separately unless warranted by severity.

references:

Berridge BR, Van Vleet JF, Herman E. 2013. Cardiac, vascular, and skeletal muscle systems. In: Haschek and Rousseaux’s Handbook of Toxicologic Pathology, 3rd ed (Haschek WM, Rousseaux CG, Wallig MA, Bolon B, Ochoa R, Mahler MW, eds). Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1635-1665.

Greaves P. 2007. Musculoskeletal system. In: Histopathology of Preclinical Toxicity Studies, 3rd ed. Elsevier, Oxford, 160-214.

Greaves P, Seely JC. 1996. Non-proliferative lesions of soft tissues and skeletal muscle in rats, MST-1. In: Guides for Toxicologic Pathology. STP/ARP/AFIP, Washington, DC.

Greaves P, Chouinard L, Ernst H, Mecklenburg L, Pruimboom-Brees IM, Rinke M, Rittinghausen S, Thibault S, von Erichsen J, Yoshida T. 2013. Proliferative and non-proliferative lesions of the rat and mouse soft tissue, skeletal muscle, and mesothelium. J Toxicol Pathol 26(3 suppl):1S-26S.
Abstract: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25035576

Leininger JR. 1999. Skeletal muscle. In: Pathology of the Mouse (Maronpot R, Boorman G, Gaul BW, eds). Cache River Press, St Louis, 637-643.

McDonald MM, Hamilton BF. 1990. Bones, joints, and synovia. In: Pathology of the Fischer Rat: Reference and Atlas (Boorman G, Eustis SL, Elwell MR, Montgomery CA, MacKenzie WF, eds). Academic Press, San Diego, 193-207.

Vahle JL, Leininger JR, Long PH, Hall DG, Ernst H. 2013. Bone, muscle, and tooth. In: Toxicologic Pathology: Nonclinical Safety Assessment (Sahota PS, Popp JA, Hardisty JF, Gopinath C, eds). CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 561-587.

Valentine BA, McGavin MD. 2007. Skeletal muscle. In: Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease (McGavin MD, Zachary JF, eds). Mosby Elsevier, St Louis, 973-1040.

Van Vleet JF, Valentine BA. 2007. Muscle and tendon. In: Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals, 5th ed, Vol 1 (Grant MG, ed). Elsevier, Edinburgh, 185-280.

NTP is located at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, part of the National Institutes of Health.