Eye, Cornea - Hyperplasia, Squamous
comment:Hyperplasia can occur in the stratified squamous corneal epithelium (lining the anterior surface of the cornea), as well as in the endothelium (lining the posterior surface of the cornea), though epithelial hyperplasia is more common. Corneal epithelial squamous hyperplasia ( Figure 1 , Figure 2 , Figure 3 , and Figure 4 ) is a focal to diffuse change characterized by increased cell layers and is often associated with epithelial hyperkeratosis ( Figure 1 and Figure 2 ). As illustrated in Figure 3 and Figure 4 , more extensive corneal epithelial squamous hyperplasia is characterized by even greater numbers of cell layers with exophytic and/or endophytic (rete-peg-like) growth patterns. Corneal epithelial hyperplasia can result from many causes, including topically applied chemical and physical irritants; systemically administered toxins; reduced tear production; bacterial, viral, or fungal infections; nutritional deficiencies; heritable defects; and exophthalmos due to space-occupying orbital masses. Corneal stromal inflammation, neovascularization, and/or fibrosis is often concurrently present.
recommendation:Squamous hyperplasia of the corneal epithelium should be diagnosed and assigned a severity grade. Associated lesions such as inflammation or edema should be diagnosed separately. Hyperplasia of the corneal endothelium should be diagnosed separately and assigned a severity grade. The site modifiers "epithelium" and "endothelium" should be used to indicate corneal epithelial versus endothelial hyperplasia (e.g., Eye, Cornea, Endothelium - Hyperplasia).
Geiss V, Yoshitomi K. 1991. Eyes. In: Pathology of the Mouse: Reference and Atlas (Maronpot RR, Boorman GA, Gaul BW, eds). Cache River Press, Vienna, IL, 471-489. Abstract: http://www.cacheriverpress.com/books/pathmouse.htm
Greaves P. 2007. Nervous system and special sense organs. In: Histopathology of Preclinical Toxicity Studies: Interpretation and Relevance in Drug Safety Evaluation, 3rd ed. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 861-933. Abstract: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/book/9780444527714
National Toxicology Program. 1988. NTP TR-331. Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Malonaldehyde, Sodium Salt (3-Hydroxy-2-propenal, Sodium Salt) (CAS No. 24382-04-5) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Studies). NTP, Research Triangle Park, NC. Abstract: https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/8898
National Toxicology Program. 1989. NTP TR-342. Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Dichlorvos (CAS No. 62-73-7) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Studies). NTP, Research Triangle Park, NC. Abstract: https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/10790
Roerig DL, Hasegawa AT, Harris GJ, Lynch KL, Wang RIH. 1980. Occurrence of corneal opacities in rats after acute administration of l-α-acetylmethadol. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 56:156-163. Abstract: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6110254
Smith RS, Hawes NL, Kuhlmann SD, Heckenlively JR, Chang B, Roderick TH, Sundberg JP. 1996. Corn1: A mouse model for corneal surface disease and neovascularization. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 37:397-404. Abstract: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8603845/
Wang I-J, Kao CW-C, Liu C-Y, Saika S, Nishina PM, Sundberg JP, Smith RS, Kao WW. 2001. Characterization of corn1 mice: Alteration of epithelial and stromal gene expression. Mol Vis 7:20-26. Abstract: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11182022
Yoshitomi K, Boorman GA. 1990. Eye and associated glands. In: Pathology of the Fischer Rat: Reference and Atlas (Boorman GA, Eustis SL, Elwell MR, Montgomery CA, MacKenzie WF, eds). Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 239-260. Abstract: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/9002563
Yudkin AM, Lambert RM. 1923. Pathogenesis of the ocular lesions produced by a deficiency of vitamin A. J Exp Med 38:17-24. Full Text: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2128416/pdf/17.pdf
Web page last updated on: October 28, 2014